Glossary English

This glossary contains explanations of concepts relevant to a certain field of study or action. In this sense, the term is related to the computational lexicon.

  1. Access Point

    A network device, or communication hub, that connects wireless devices to a wired local area network (LAN).
  2. Accuracy

    It is a computed indicator of the system's ability to place the correct mate within a specified position on the candidate list as a result of the matching process.
  3. Acquisition (BioID)

    It is a part of the biometric system that controls audio and video recording. Acquisition runs in the background and provides audio and video data.
  4. Acquisition device

    The hardware used to acquire biometric samples. The following acquisition devices are associated with each biometric technology.
  5. Active imposter acceptance

    It is the Acceptance of a biometric sample submitted by someone attempting to gain illegal entry to a biometric system.
  6. AES

    It is the Advanced Encryption Standard. A standard for encryption intended to replace the DES (Data Encryption Standard). AES supports key lengths ranging from 128 to 256 bits.
  7. AFIS

    Automated Fingerprint Identification System. A system originally developed for use by law enforcement agencies, which compares a single fingerprint with a database of fingerprint images. Subsequent developments have seen its use in commercial applications, where a client or customer has their finger image compared with existing personal data by placing a finger on a scanner, or by the scanning of inked paper impressions.
  8. A-GPS

    It is the Assisted-Global Positioning System. A technology used to determine an end-user’s position in urban areas or dense outdoor environments. It differs from traditional GPS by adding an assistance server, which shares tasks with the A-GPS receiver to expedite position location. It is commonly associated with location-based services (LBS).
  9. Air Interface

    It is the radio frequency portion of the circuit (connection) between the cellular handset or wireless modem and the active base station (cell tower).
  10. Aircard

    It is a wireless modem that can be used in a laptop or other mobile computing device to connect to the Internet. Aircard has become synonymous with wireless wide area network (WWAN) card, PCMCIA card and wireless PC card and is a registered trademark of Sierra Wireless.
  11. Alogrithm

    It is a sequence of instructions that tells a system how to solve a problem. It used by biometric systems, for example, to tell whether a sample and a template are a match. Cryptographic algorithms are used to encrypt sensitive data files, to encrypt and decrypt messages, and to digitally sign documents.
  12. AMPS

    It is the Advanced Mobile Phone Service. It is the first analog cellular phone system commercially deployed in the 1980s.
  13. Analog

    In telecommunications, an early wireless network technology involving the modulation of radio signals, which transmit information as sound waves over radio signals allowing one call per channel. Most wireless transmission is now done digitally.
  14. ANSI

    It is The American National Standards Institute. It is a standards-setting, non-governmental organization that develops and publishes standards for transmission codes and protocols for use in the United States. ANSI serves as the official U.S. member body to the worlds leading standards bodies, including the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
  15. API

    It is the Application Programming Interface. A computer code which is a set of instructions or services used to standardize an application. Any system compatible with the API can then be added or interchanged by the application developer. Or it is a set of standard methods or functions that application programs can use to access a particular set of services or tools, such as network services and program-to-program commands. For example, BREW provides a set of APIs for the development of applications for wireless devices.
  16. ARPU

    Average Revenue Per User. The monthly revenue generated by a consumers wireless device usage. ARPU is commonly used by wireless network operators and telecommunications/wireless analysts to estimate ROI (return on investment) measures for investments in network infrastructure and end-user services.
  17. ART

    It is the Available Revenue Time. Term used frequently in the wireless industry referring to the amount of user time available from which carriers may generate revenue. Revenue is typically generated by billing for services such as SMS, video, mobile TV, or other multi-media options typical in modern convergent devices.
  18. ASIC

    IT is the Application Specific Integrated Circuit. An integrated circuit developed for specific applications to improve performance.
  19. Asymmetric Encryption - a.k.a. Public Key Encryption

    A method of securing data for transmission that equips each user with two keys, a private key and a public key. Each individual uses the others public key to encrypt the data that is sent and then each individual uses their own private key to decrypt the data received. A trusted third party often provides keys.
  20. Asynchronous

    IT is the Communication signals that do not rely on a shared timing mechanism to transmit and receive information. Examples are GSM and WCDMA networks.
  21. Asynchronous multimodality

    It is the systems that require that a user verify through more than one biometric in sequence. Asynchronous multimodal solutions are comprised of one, two, or three distinct authentication processes. A typical user interaction will consist of verification on finger scan, then face if finger is successful.
  22. Audit trail

    In computer/network systems: Record of events (protocols, written documents, and other evidence) which can be used to trace the activities and usage of a system. Such material is crucial when tracking down successful attacks/attackers, determining how the attacks happened, and being able to use this evidence in a court of law.
  23. Authentication

    It is an alternative term for verification. It is the process of establishing the validity of the user attempting to gain access to a system. Primary authentication methods are: * Access passwords (something the user knows) * Access tokens (something the user owns) * Biometrics * Geography (a workstation, for example)
  24. Backhaul

    Refers to transporting data or voice between the wireless network and the PDSN (packed data serving node, in wireless communications), or between the wireless network and the Internet (in a wireless local area network implementation).
  25. Band

    It is in wireless communications, a frequency or contiguous range of frequencies.
  26. Bandwidth

    In wireless communications, the width or capacity of a communications channel. Analog bandwidth is measured in hertz (Hz). Digital bandwidth is the volume of data that a channel can carry and is measured in bits per second (bps).
  27. Base Station

    Often called a cell tower or a cell site, a base station is a transmitter/receiver location that establishes radio links between the wireless system and the wireless device. The base station includes an antenna tower, transmission radios and radio controllers. Each geographic area in a cellular network requires a base station.
  28. BCMCS

    Broadcast Multicast Service. A standard being developed for third-generation (3G) cellular networks. IT provides transmission of multimedia data from a single source to all subscribers in a specific area. Examples of multicast content could include video and movie clips, news, sports or stock quotes.
  29. Behavioural biometric

    A biometric, which is characterized by a behavioural trait that is learned and acquired over time as opposed to a physical characteristic.
  30. BioAPI

    BioAPI V1.0, developed by the BioAPI consortium, and released in March 2000. It designed to produce a standard biometric API aiding developers and consumers.
  31. Biometric

    It is one of various technologies that utilize behavioral or physiological characteristics to determine or verify identity. A Finger-scan is a commonly used biometric. A Plural form also acceptable: “Retina-scan and iris-scan are eye-based biometrics." As a noun but Biometric as an adjective it means of or pertaining to technologies that utilize behavioral or physiological characteristics to determine or verify identity. EG: “Do you plan to use biometric identification or older types of identification?"
  32. Biometric data

    It is the extracted information taken from the biometric sample and used to build a reference template.
  33. Biometric sample

    It is the raw data representing a biometric characteristic of an applicant as captured by a biometric system. It also the identifiable, unprocessed image or recording of a physiological or behavioral characteristic, acquired during submission, used to generate biometric templates. It is also referred to as biometric data.
  34. Biometric system

    The integrated biometric hardware and software used to conduct biometric identification or verification. An automated system capable of * capturing a biometric sample from an applicant or a biometric evidence, * extracting biometric data from that sample, * comparing the biometric data with that contained in one or more reference templates, * deciding how well they match, * indicating whether or not an authentication of identity or identification has been achieved * storing and managing the information dedicated to the biometric applications.
  35. Unimodal biometric system

    It is a biometric system which uses a single biometric.
  36. Multimodal biometric system

    It is a biometric system which uses multiple biometrics.
  37. Biometrics

    It is the field relating to biometric identification. EG: “What is the future of biometrics?"
  38. Blackberry

    A mobile device that supports wireless voice and data capabilities, including email, Web browsing, and contact and task management applications. A wireless service that provides data transmission service is required. Blackberry is a product name of Research in Motion (RIM).
  39. Bluetooth

    It is a short-range wireless technology that interconnects devices such as phones, computers, keyboards, microphones and mice. Bluetooth supports both voice and data communications.
  40. bps

    Bits Per Second. It is the standard for measuring the smallest unit of information in digital communications and data processing.
  41. BREW

    It is the Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless. It is an open, extensible client platform developed by Qualcomm to support system and application software, including personalized and branded user interfaces. IT may be used with most wireless devices and networks. It is a component of the BREW System.
  42. BREW client

    It is the handset client component of the BREW solution developed by Qualcomm. An open, extensible client platform that supports system and application software, including personalized and branded user interfaces. It is Compatible with most wireless devices and networks.
  43. BREW Delivery System

    A complete content delivery service from Qualcomm designed specifically for operators. It solves important issues such as device fragmentation and consistent device experience via devices featuring the BREW client.
  44. BREW SDK

    It is the Developed to enable software developers to write applications for BREW devices. It provides developers with general development and debugging tools, sample applications with source code, user guides and testing tools.
  45. BREW solution

    A family of Qualcomm products and services dedicated to enabling development and deployment of wireless data applications and services. It Consists of an open, extensible client platform, support for personalized and branded user interfaces, and a J2EE-based, modular delivery system.
  46. Broadband

    It is the generic term for high-speed digital Internet connections, such as wire line, DSL or cable modems and wireless third-generation technologies, such as WCDMA (UMTS), CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and HSDPA.
  47. BSC

    It is the Base Station Controller. A component of a base station, the BSC supervises the functioning and control of multiple base transceiver stations and acts as a small switch.
  48. BTS

    It is the Base Transceiver Station. It includes the electronic equipment and the antenna that comprises a PCS (personal communications services) facility or single base station.
  49. Buffer overflow

    It is the most common cause of current security vulnerabilities. A buffer overflow occurs when more data is put into a temporary data storage area (buffer) than the buffer can hold. Because buffers can only hold a finite amount of data, the extra information can overflow into adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the data in them. Programming errors are the one of the most frequent causes of buffer overflow problems. In attacks which exploit buffer vulnerabilities, extra data is sent to the buffer with code designed to trigger specific actions, and which can damage files, change data, or disclose confidential information. Buffer overflow attacks may have arisen from poor use of the C programming language.
  50. Candidate

    Reference template and template identifier selected by the matcher as a possible match for the template issued from the submitted biometric sample.
  51. CAPEX

    It is the Capital Expenditure. It is an expenditure connected to acquiring or upgrading physical assets such as equipment, property or buildings.
  52. Capture

    It is the method of taking a biometric sample from an applicant, live capture; it is the process of capturing a biometric sample by an interaction between an applicant and a biometric system. And dead capture: Capture of a biometric sample from biometric evidence
  53. Carrier

    In wireless communications, an electromagnetic pulse or radio wave transmitted at a steady base frequency. It used to transmit radio signals to a radio receiver. Also commonly used to refer to a wireless network operator or service provider that provides mobile telecommunications services.
  54. CCD

    Charge coupled device. It is a light-sensitive chip or image sensor used in scanners and digital cameras that converts light into proportional (analog) electrical currents. The AD converter converts analogue signals into pixel values.
  55. CDG

    CDMA Development Group. It is an international consortium of companies working together to lead the adoption and evolution of CDMA-based wireless systems around the world.
  56. CDMA

    Code Division Multiple Access. It is a digital wireless technology that works by converting analog information, such as speech, into digital information, which is then transmitted as a radio signal over a wireless network. CDMA uses spread-spectrum technology, decreasing potential interference while achieving privacy. CDMA technology is the basis for third-generation (3G) wireless technologies which offer increased voice capacity and provide higher data rates than 2G and 2.5G networks.
  57. CDMA2000 - a.k.a. IS-2000

    CDMA2000 (also known as CDMA2000 1X) is a family of 3G wireless standards that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous, second generation wireless standards. The CDMA2000 family of standards include CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. CDMA2000 is a direct evolution of the cdmaOne standard.
  58. CDMA2000 1X - a.k.a. 1X, 1XRTT, CDMA2000

    A family of third-generation (3G) wireless standards that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous, second-generation wireless standards. The CDMA2000 family of standards includes CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. CDMA2000 is a direct evolution of cdmaOne.
  59. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO - a.k.a. EV-DO, DO

    It is the CDMA2000 1X Evolution - Data Optimized. Third-generation wireless technology that offers broadband data speeds to support applications such as VPN access, video downloads and large file transfers. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO is a direct evolution of CDMA2000 1X.
  60. CDMA2000 1xEV-DV

    It is the CDMA2000 1X Evolution Data and Voice. It is the Third-generation wireless technology that supports high-speed voice and data on the same channel. It enables Internet connectivity for cellular phones, PDAs and other mobile devices.
  61. cdmaOne

    A brand name trademarked and reserved for the exclusive use of the CDMA Development Group (CDG) member companies. cdmaOne was the coined term for Qualcomm's original CDMA systems based on the IS-95A and IS-95B standards, which made use of 1.25 MHz channels to deliver voice and data.
  62. CDPD

    It is the Cellular Digital Packet Data. It is an add-on technology that enables first-generation (1G) analog systems to provide packet data. Today, 2.5G and 3G systems are replacing CDPD.
  63. Cell

    It is the geographic area encompassing the signal range from one base station. Wireless networks are comprised of many overlapping cells to efficiently use radio spectrum for wireless transmissions.
  64. Cell Site

    A fixed transmitter/receiver location, also known as a base station or a cell tower, which establishes communications between a wireless system and a wireless device using radio links. The cell site includes an antenna tower, transmission radios and radio controllers.
  65. Cell Tower

    It is a fixed transmitter/receiver location, also known as a base station or a cell site, which establishes communications between a wireless system and a wireless device using radio links. The cell tower includes an antenna tower, transmission radios and radio controllers.
  66. Cellular

    Analog or digital communications that provide a consumer with a wireless connection from the mobile device to a relatively nearby transmitter (base station). The transmitter’s coverage area is called a cell.
  67. Channel

    It is the amount of wireless spectrum occupied by a specific technology implementation. For cellular communications, there is a transmit side and a receive side. For example, a 5 MHz channel uses 5 MHz to transmit and 5 MHz to receive, using a total of 10 MHz of wireless spectrum.
  68. Circuit-Switched Network

    Networks that temporarily establish a physical circuit "connection", and keep that circuit reserved for the user until a disconnect signal is received. A dial-up modem is an example of a circuit-switched connection. In contrast, It is a packed-switched network which are connectionless or “always on" eliminating the need to initiate a connection for data transfer.
  69. Classification

    It is the process of checking a person's identity. Could be either verification or identification.
  70. Classification result (BioID)

    It contains the result of a single verification/classification. It consists of fusion results and (optionally) the results for the single traits. A rating for every trained class is given, as well as set of classification parameters (weights, thresholds) and the final result (acceptance/rejection).
  71. Classifier (BioID)

    It is a module that matches features of a recording against the prototypes of one or more learned persons. Also calculates the prototypes from training data.
  72. Clipcast

    It is a short-format video content for wireless devices.
  73. CMX

    It is the Compact Media Extensions. Qualcomm’s multimedia software that enables developers to create cost-effective, customized ringtones and screensavers. CMX enables time-synchronization of MIDI-based music, text, graphics, animation and voice.
  74. Compact Flash Card

    It is the Compact Media Extensions. Qualcomm’s multimedia software that enables developers to create cost-effective, customized ringtones and screensavers. CMX enables time-synchronization of MIDI-based music, text, graphics, animation and voice.
  75. Compact Flash Card

    One of a variety of small removable flash memory cards used in mobile devices to provide additional storage capacity.
  76. Comparison

    It is the process of comparing biometric data with a previously stored reference template or templates.
  77. Contact/Contactless

    In regard to chip cards: whether the card is read by direct contact with a reader or has a transmitter/receiver system which allows it to be read using radio frequency technology (up to a certain distance).
  78. Convergence Platform

    Qualcomm's platform of Mobile Station Modem (MSM) chipsets with dual processors to enable the processing speeds necessary to converge wireless with consumer electronics devices. It supports higher-speed wireless data services such as real-time interactive gaming and higher-resolution digital camera functionality.
  79. Coverage Area

    Geographic area served by a cellular system in which service is available to wireless users.
  80. COW

    It is Cell on Wheels. A complete mobile base station used to provide cellular coverage where coverage is unavailable. It is often used to enhance coverage for special events or as a temporary backup service.
  81. CRM

    It is Customer Relationship Management. It is an integrated information management system that is used to plan, schedule and control the pre- and post-sales activities within an organization to improve customer tracking and communication. Enterprises can wirelessly extend their CRM solutions, enabling sales professionals to remotely access timely customer data for increased productivity and improved customer service.
  82. Crossover error rate (CER)

    It is a comparison metric for different biometric devices and technologies; the error rate at which FAR equals FRR. It is the lower the CER, the more accurate and reliable the biometric device.
  83. Data vaulting

    It is the process of sending data off site, where it can be protected from hardware failures, theft, and other threats. Several companies now offer Web backup services that compress, encrypt, and periodically transmit a customer's data to a remote vault. In most cases, the vaults have auxiliary power supplies, powerful computers, and manned security. Also referred to as a remote backup service (RBS).
  84. Decision

    It is the result of the comparison between the score and the threshold. The decisions a biometric system can make include match, non-match, and inconclusive, although varying degrees of strong matches and non-matches are possible. Either/or multimodality describes systems that offer multiple biometric technologies, but only require verification through a single technology.
  85. Decision threshold

    The acceptance or rejection of a candidate is dependent on the match score falling above or below the threshold. The threshold may be adjustable so that the biometric system can be more or less strict, depending on the requirements of any given biometric application.
  86. deliveryOne

    It is a suite of server-based content delivery products. It provides operators with varied solutions for delivering wireless data content and custom user interfaces. Includes the BREW Delivery System (BDS) and the uiOne Delivery System (UDS).
  87. DES

    It is Data Encryption Standard. Protects unclassified computer data using a 56-bit, private key, symmetric cryptographic algorithm; issued as a Federal Information Processing Standard.
  88. Digital

    A form of transmission that transforms analog signals, such as voice, into a series of electrical or optical pulses that represent the binary digits 0 and 1. This numerical data is then converted into various forms depending on the type of network, such as radio waves for wireless transmission, electronic pulses for a wired network or optical light waves for fiber optics. Digital networks offer superior Quality of Service (QoS), secure transmission and more bandwidth than analog lines.
  89. Digital certificate

    In the PKI environment, the data, equivalent to an identity card, issued to a user by a CA (Certificate authority), which he/she uses during business transactions to prove his/her identity.
  90. Digital signature

    The number derived by performing cryptographic operations on the text to be signed. This operation, or hash function (also called hash algorithm), is performed on the binary code of the text. The result is known as the message digests, and always has a fixed length. A signature algorithm is applied to the message digest, resulting in the digital signature.
  91. DOT

    It is Department of Telecommunications. The India government body that covers policy, licensing, and coordination of telegraphs, telephones, wireless, data, facsimile and telematic communications.
  92. Downlink - a.k.a. Forward Link

    It is the connection from the network to the end-user communications device. In satellite communications, also refers to the connection from a satellite to a terrestrial receiver.
  93. DRM

    It is Digital Rights Management. It is the technology for copyright protection of digital media, including ringtones, music, graphics and video. Developed to prevent the illegal distribution of purchased content over the Internet.
  94. DSA

    It is a digital Signature Algorithm. Presented in 1991 by the NIST and patented in 1993. A publicly available one-way algorithm used to generate or verify digital signatures of a text to be signed (not to encrypt/decrypt information). As input, DSA needs * The message digest of the message to be signed 2. The signer's private key 3. A random number Its output is a pair of numbers (often referred to as r and s) which together, make up the digital signature. To verify a digital signature, DSA needs as input * The message digest of the text to be verified 2. The signer's public key 3. The value s from the signature DSA then makes a computation, the output of which is called v, for example. If v = r, then the signature verifies.
  95. DSS

    Digital Signature Standard. Developed by FIPS (U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard). Adopted the DSA in the early 1990s.
  96. DSSS

    Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. A spread spectrum technique used in radio transmission systems, such as CDMA, wireless local area networks (WLAN) and some personal communications services (PCS) systems. DSSS converts a data stream into a stream of packets, which are then transmitted over a wide range of frequencies using a "scattering" approach.
  97. Dual Band

    It is functionality that allows a mobile phone to transmit in two frequencies for wider coverage area. For example, a mobile phone may be equipped to use both the 800 MHz cellular and 1900 MHz PCS frequencies to send and receive calls.
  98. Dual Mode

    It is functionality that allows a mobile phone to operate in two different modes for greater roaming capabilities. For example, a mobile phone may be equipped to support both CDMA2000 and WCDMA standards to send and receive calls.
  99. Duplicate search

    Computer generated search performed to detect any duplicated templates stored in a permanent database.
  100. DVB-H

    It is the Digital Video Broadcasting - Handhelds. It is a multicast technology standard specified by the DVB Project for the multicast delivery of TV-like programming to wireless devices. With DVB-H, one signal is sent from the base station and received by all subscribing devices within range.
  101. DVB Project

    It is Digital Video Broadcasting Project. A consortium of broadcasters, manufacturers, network operators, software developers, regulatory bodies and others committed to designing global standards for the delivery of digital television and data services.
  102. E911

    It Enhanced 911. It is a U.S. Government-mandated capability that automatically provides the caller’s geographic location and wireless phone number to the 911 call centre. The goal of the FCC’s wireless E911 rules is to improve the effectiveness of wireless 911 services by providing emergency dispatchers with location information to within 50 to 300 meters of the caller’s exact location.
  103. EDGE

    It enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution. A software/hardware enhancement for existing GSM networks designed to provide higher data rates to enhance the delivery of multimedia and other broadband applications for wireless devices.
  104. Embedded

    In wireless communications, used to describe capabilities, such as Internet access, that are contained within a device.
  105. Encryption

    It is the scrambling of data so that it becomes difficult to unscramble or decipher. Scrambled data is called cipher text, as opposed to unscrambled data, which is called plaintext. Unscrambling cipher text is called decryption. Data encryption is done by the use of an algorithm and a key. The key is used by the algorithm to scramble and unscramble the data. The algorithm can be public (it is analysis by the cryptographic community), but the key must be kept private. Encryption does not make unauthorized decryption impossible, but merely difficult. Time, and the power (ever increasing) of computers are the factors involved in the feasibility of decryption.In security, encryption is the ciphering of data by applying an algorithm to plain text. Types include Asymmetric, Symmetric and Public Key.
  106. End-to-End Security

    It is in wireless communications, safeguarding information in a network by encryption to ensure secure data transmission from the point of origin to the point of destination.
  107. Enhanced Multimedia Platform

    It is a platform of Mobile Station Modem (MSM) chipsets with increased processing power to support faster, third-generation (3G) wireless multimedia. Also supports larger, high-resolution screens for improved viewing of multimedia features such as video-on-demand, 3D gaming and video telephony.
  108. Enroll

    It is a person who has a biometric stored reference template.
  109. Enrollment

    It is the initial process of collecting biometric data from a user and then storing it in a template for later comparison. It is the process of collecting biometric samples from an applicant and the subsequent preparation, and storage of biometric reference templates representing that person's identity.
  110. ERP

    Enterprise Resource Planning. A business management system that integrates all major facets of a business, such as manufacturing, finance, sales and human resources functions. ERP software links together various back-office computer systems, including SFA (sales force automation) and CRM (customer relationship management) applications. ERP software typically incorporates heavy use of telecommunications, including providing wireless access to these systems to enable real-time information requests.
  111. EV-DO

    Third-generation wireless technology that offers broadband data speeds to support applications such as VPN access, video downloads and large file transfers.
  112. Failure to enrol (FE)

    It is the failure of the biometric system to capture and extract biometric data for an applicant or biometric evidence. The failure may be due to capture the biometric sample or to extract data (of sufficient quality).
  113. Failure to enrol rate (FER)

    It is the proportion of the population of applicants failing to complete enrolment.
  114. False Acceptance

    Result of a biometric request in the case of an Impostor Attempt provided by a biometric system which consists in a positive verification or a wrong identification of the applicant. Used in the context of Positive Claim of Identity. in the case of a candidate list, each candidate of the list before the correctly identified candidate is in a "False Acceptance" situation
  115. False-acceptance rate (FAR)

    It is the percentage of imposters incorrectly matched to a valid user's biometric.
  116. False Rejection

    Result of a Biometric Request in the case of a Genuine Attempt provided by a Biometric System which consists in a negative Verification or a wrong Identification of the Applicant. Used in the context of Positive Claim of Identity.
  117. False-rejection rate (FRR)

    It is the percentage of incorrectly rejected valid users.
  118. FAR - False Acceptance Rate

    It is over a designated number of Impostor Attempts, the proportion of positive answers given by the biometric system. It is stated as follows: FAR = NFA/NIIA or FAR=NFA/NIVA Where FAR is the false acceptance rate It is where NFA (Number of False Acceptances) is the number of positive answers of the system in the case of Impostor Attempts. Where NIIA (Number of Impostor Identification Attempts) is the number of Attempts corresponding to a Impostor Implicit Claim of Identity. Where NIVA (Number of Impostor Verification Attempts) is the number of Attempts corresponding to a Impostor Explicit Claim of Identity.
  119. FAR Curve

    Curve where FAR is plotted as a function of the Decision Threshold.
  120. FCC

    It is the Federal Communications Commission. It is the U.S. government agency responsible for regulation of the communications industry.
  121. Feature (BioID)

    Result of the pre-processing and feature extraction process. Features contain classification relevant information in a compact representation. If a video channel is present, a feature set also contains a thumbnail image.
  122. Feature extraction

    It is the automated process of locating and encoding distinctive characteristics from a biometric sample in order to generate a template.
  123. Feature Extraction (BioID)

    Calculation of the features that are going to be classified from recorded and/or pre-processed data.
  124. FFA

    It is Field Force Automation. Information technology solutions that help companies improve communication with employees in the field. Wireless FFA solutions increase productivity by enabling mobile employees to remotely access centralized databases, finalize service calls, update time/expense reports and schedule appointments.
  125. FHSS

    It is Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. A technique used in radio transmission systems, such as wireless local area networks (WLAN) and select mobile networks. FHSS converts a data stream into a stream of packets which are then sent in short bursts via transmitters and receivers that move or “hop” from one frequency to another.
  126. Firewall

    It is a combination of hardware and software that protects a computer or group of computers from an attack by an outside network or computer user. A firewall enforces a boundary between two or more networks.
  127. Flash Memory

    It is a type of memory that can be erased and reprogrammed (rewritten). It is commonly used in mobile phones, digital cameras, audio players and removable memory cards, such as Memory Sticks or Secure Digital (SD) Cards.
  128. FLASH-OFDM

    Fast Low-latency Access with Seamless Handoff Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. It is an OFDMA implementation for high-speed mobile wireless data. It delivers data rates comparable to wired broadband services such as DSL and cable modems. FLASH-OFDM is a product name of Flarion Technologies.
  129. FLO

    It is Forward Link Only. An air interface developed by Qualcomm to support mobile multicast multimedia services for wireless consumers; based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Enables the simultaneous delivery of TV- and radio-like programming to many wireless devices; also supports IP data casting.
  130. FLO Forum

    An organization of wireless industry leaders committed to advancing the global standardization of FLO technology. Oversees the evolution of the air interface specification for FLO, promotes its standardization, and manages compliance and certification benchmarks for the technology.
  131. FMR - False Match Rate

    It is an alternative term for False Acceptance Rate. Used in the context of Negative Claim of Identity.
  132. FNMR - False Non Match Rate

    It is an alternative term for False Rejection Rate. Used in the context of Negative Claim of Identity.
  133. Forward Link - a.k.a. Downlink

    It is the connection from the network to the end-user communications device. In satellite communications, also refers to the connection from a satellite to a terrestrial receiver.
  134. FOMA

    It is NTT DoCoMo’s WCDMA-compliant 3G network. It supports high-volume, high-speed wireless data transmission to enable multimedia services such as videophone and video mail.
  135. FPS

    It is in video, frames per second.
  136. Frame Relay

    Uses a form of packet-switching and multiplexes data. A frame relay network is able to accommodate data packets of various sizes associated with virtually any native data protocol. It is an access standard defined by the ITU.
  137. Frequency

    It is the rate at which an electromagnetic waveform alternates. It usually measured in hertz (Hz) or megahertz (MHz).
  138. FRR - False Rejection Rate

    It is over a designated number of Genuine Attempts, the proportion of negative answers given by the Biometric System. It is stated as follows: FRR=NFR/NEIA or FRR=NFR/NEVA Where FRR is the false rejection rate Where NFR (Number of False Rejection): number of negative answers of the Biometric System in the case of Genuine Attempts. It is where NEIA (Number of enroll Identification Attempts) is the number of Attempts corresponding to a Genuine Implicit Claim of Identity. It is where NEVA (Number of Enroll Verification Attempts) is the number of Attempts corresponding to a Genuine Explicit Claim of Identity.
  139. FRR Curve

    Curve where FRR is plotted as a function of the Decision Threshold.
  140. GAIT

    It is GSM ANSI-136 Interoperability Team. A wireless standard that enables GSM and TDMA networks to interoperate. It requires special handsets (often called “GAIT phones”) and used in conjunction with GAIT networking.
  141. Gateway

    A network point that acts as an entrance to another network.
  142. GB

    It is Gigabyte. It is a measure of computer data storage capacity. It measured as approximately a billion bytes or 1,073,741,824 in decimal notation.
  143. GHz

    It is Gigahertz. It is a measure of frequency equal to a billion hertz or a thousand megahertz (MHz). Gigahertz is often used to measure UHF (ultra-high frequency) or to express microprocessor clock speed in some computers.
  144. Gold Multicast

    Technology developed by Qualcomm that enables clip casting or multicasting of multimedia content to a group of wireless subscribers. Based on the BCMCS standard, Gold Multicast is a software upgrade for existing CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel. 0 networks.
  145. GPRS

    It is General Packet Radio Service. It is a 2.5G technology standard that is an upgrade to a GSM network. It adds packet data to the existing voice network.
  146. GPS

    It is Global Positioning System. It is a worldwide radio-navigation system developed by the U.S. Department of Defence to enable users to determine their exact location anywhere on the globe from land, air or sea. GPS works via radio signals sent from orbiting satellites to receivers on the ground. GPS receivers are used in a wide range of commercial applications from fleet management to rural navigation.
  147. gpsOne

    It is an assisted-GPS (A-GPS) position-location technology. It integrates data from both wireless network base stations and GPS satellites for a highly-accurate location description. It enables location-based services for wireless devices that work in all types of terrains and dense metropolitan areas. It is a component of the Launch pad Suite.
  148. Groupware

    It is a category of enterprise software that allows employees to work more collaboratively. Groupware includes email and PIM (personal information management) functionality such as calendar, to-do lists and contact information; and allows employees to share data. Examples include Microsoft Exchange/Microsoft Outlook and Lotus Domino/Lotus Notes.
  149. GSM

    It is the Global System for Mobile Communications. It is a second-generation wireless telecommunications standard for digital cellular services first deployed in Europe. GSM is based on TDMA technology and provides circuit-switched data connections.
  150. GUI

    It is the Graphical User Interface. It is the interface that allows the user to interact with a particular device, such as a wireless phone or personal computer. Elements include pull-down menus, buttons, scroll bars, iconic images, windows and help wizards. It is sometimes pronounced "gooey".
  151. H.263

    A video compression standard developed by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for transmitting video over limited bandwidth connections, such as mobile networks. Supports only the visual portion of the video stream; the audio portion is handled separately.
  152. Handoff

    It is the process, invisible to the user, of transferring a cellular phone conversation from one base station (cell tower) to another without interruption to the call. There are two types of handoffs: hard and soft.
  153. Handset

    It is a wireless device that contains a transmitter and receiver. It is also known as a cell phone or mobile phone.
  154. Hard Handoff

    A handoff is the process, invisible to the user, of transferring a cellular phone conversation from one base station (cell tower) to another without interruption to the call. Hard handoffs require that the connection of a cellular phone call be broken in the original base station before the connection can be made in the next base station. A hard handoff may result in a dropped call.
  155. Hertz

    It is the international unit for measuring frequency, equivalent to cycles per second. One megahertz (MHz) is one million mertz. One gigahertz (GHz) is one billion hertz.
  156. Hot Spot

    It is a location, such as a coffee shop, airport or bookstore, where a consumer can establish a WLAN (wireless local area network) or Wi-Fi connection. Hot spots provide a wireless access point for the user and limited coverage (approximately 100 feet), depending on the location.
  157. HSDPA

    It is the High-Speed Downlink Packet Access. An enhancement to WCDMA networks that provides higher data speeds in the downlink to support applications such as VPN access, video downloads and large file transfers.
  158. HSUPA

    It is the High-Speed Uplink Packet Access. An enhancement to WCDMA networks that provides higher data speeds in the uplink to support applications such as VPN access and large file transfers.
  159. iDEN

    Integrated Dispatch Enhance Network. A proprietary technology from Motorola based on the TDMA standard that allows users to access phone calls, two-way radio transmissions, paging and data from one wireless device. Nextel Communications uses iDEN technology as the basis for its networks.
  160. Identification

    Is the process by which the biometric system identifies a person by performing a one-to-many (1: n) search against the entire enrolled population.
  161. Identification

    It is (1: N, one-to-many, recognition). It is the process of determining a person’s identity by performing matches against multiple biometric templates. Identification systems are designed to determine identity based solely on biometric information. There are two types of identification systems: positive identification and negative identification. Positive identification systems are designed to find a match for a user’s biometric information in a database of biometric information.
  162. Identification

    The "one-to-many" process of comparing a submitted biometric sample against all of the stored biometric reference templates to determine whether it matches any of the templates and, if so, the identity of the enrollor attached to the biometric evidence whose template was matched. The biometric system using the one-to-many approach is seeking to find an identity amongst a database rather than authenticate a claimed identity. Contrast with Authentication.
  163. IEEE

    It is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is a standards body responsible for developing computing and electronics standards. The IEEE developed 802.11 standards for WLANs (wireless local area networks) that are widely followed today.
  164. IETF

    It is the Internet Engineering Task Force. The body that defines standard Internet operating protocols such as TCP/IP.
  165. IM

    It is the Instant Messaging. It is the Instant, real-time, text-based communication between two or more people over a network such as the Internet.
  166. IMOD

    It is the Interferometric Modulator. It is a low-power technology for flat panel displays for mobile devices. It combines ultra-thin film optics with a micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) device to create displays viewable in any lighting condition.
  167. i-mode

    It is the Internet Mode. It is a proprietary cell phone service based on cHTML technology developed by Japan's NTT DoCoMo. i-mode supports Web content and services, such as mobile banking, email and news reporting for cellular phones.
  168. impostor

    A person, unknown in the collection of reference templates, who submits his/her own biometric sample in either an intentional or inadvertent attempt to pass him/herself as a legitimate enrolee. Contrast with Usurpator.
  169. IMS

    It is IP Multimedia Subsystem. It is an open industry standard for voice and multimedia communications over packet-based IP networks. It supports technologies such as IM (instant messaging), VoIP (voice over Internet protocol), push to talk (PTT) and video calling.
  170. IMT-2000

    It is the International Mobile Telecommunications for the Year 2000. A set of ITU specifications for third-generation wireless networks comprised of five wireless standards including CDMA2000 and WCDMA.
  171. Intellectual Property - a.k.a. IP

    It is the Intellectual Property. It refers to property rights created through intellectual and/or discovery efforts of a creator that can generally be protected under patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret, trade dress or other law. Also commonly used as an abbreviation for Internet Protocol.
  172. Internet Protocol - a.k.a. IP

    It is the Internet Protocol. It is the method of sending data from one computer to another on the Internet. IP is part of the TCP/IP protocol and is an integral component of the Internet. Also commonly used as an abbreviation for Intellectual Property.
  173. IP Datacasting

    It is Simultaneous transmission of content from a single source to a large number of wireless subscribers. Usually refers to the delivery of a wide variety of TV-like programming to wireless devices, and can also include IP-based content such as games or video and audio files.
  174. IPR

    It is the Intellectual Property Rights.
  175. IPsec

    It is the Internet Protocol Security. It is a collection of protocols for secure exchange of packets at the internet protocol (IP) layer. IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport mode encrypts only the data portion of each packet; Tunnel mode encrypts the data portion and header of each packet.
  176. IS-41 - a.k.a. ANSI 41

    The network standard used by AMPS, CDMA and TDMA networks. It is the basis of the core network for CDMA2000.
  177. IS-95 A/B - a.k.a. ANSI 95 A/B

    It is the Interim Standard 95. It is the interim standard for CDMA-based cellular networks.
  178. IS-136 - a.k.a. ANSI 136

    It is the Interim Standard 136. It is the Interim Standard for TDMA in the U.S.
  179. IS-2000

    It is the Interim Standard 2000. It is the interim standard for CDMA2000, the third-generation (3G) wireless mobile standard for CDMA2000-based cellular networks.
  180. ISO

    It is the International Organization for Standardization. Chartered by the United Nations, ISO was formed to define and promote the development of various international standards.
  181. ITU

    It is the International Telecommunications Union. It is an agency of the United Nations with the goal of establishing telecommunication standards.
  182. Java

    A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems for creating and running software programs on a single computer and in networked environments, such as the Internet. Java programs are portable and can be run anywhere in a network that has a Java virtual machine (JVM).
  183. JPEG

    It is a standard file format for image compression, typically for photographic images. Commonly used to store and transmit photographs over the Internet. The most common file extensions for this format are .jpg or .jpeg.
  184. JVM

    It is Java Virtual Machine. It interprets compiled Java code for a computer’s processor so it can execute a Java program’s instructions.
  185. KB

    It is Kilobyte. It is a measure of computer memory or storage. It measured as 1,024 bytes in decimal notation.
  186. Kbps

    It is Kilobits per second. Commonly used as a speed for data transmission. It measured as 1,000 bits per second.
  187. KCC

    It is Korea Communications Commission. It is Responsible for developing and enforcing policies which promote fair competition in the telecommunications marketplace.
  188. Kilohertz (KHz)

    It is one thousand hertz. A measurement often used to reference radio frequencies.
  189. L2TP

    Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocols. It is a tunnelling protocol that enables the operation of a virtual private network (VPN) over the Internet.
  190. LAN

    It is Local Area Network. It is a small communication network covering a limited area, such as within a building or group of buildings.
  191. Last Mile

    It is commonly used in telecommunications to refer to the final delivery of communications connectivity between the network and the end user’s point of access (home or business).
  192. Launchpad Suite

    Qualcomm's suite of integrated technologies that enable advanced multimedia, connectivity, position location, user interface, removable storage capabilities and many other capabilities. The Launchpad suite is integrated into Qualcomm's MSM chipset and software solutions.
  193. LBS

    Location Based Services. Enables operators to offer personalized services based on the user’s location. Examples of LBS include regional map information for real estate agents and asset tracking solutions for service representatives at logistics and transportation companies.
  194. LCD

    It is Liquid crystal display. A thin, flat display screen consisting of numerous colour or monochrome pixels arranged in front of a light source. LCDs are used in many mobile and other battery-powered electronic devices because of relatively low energy requirements and easy readability.
  195. Live frames (BioID)

    It is an audio or video single frame that may contain eye positions and a detection quality rating. (rate 0-100)
  196. LTE

    It is Long Term Evolution. A highly optimized mobile broadband OFDMA solution designed from the ground up to deliver high-speed broadband data, voice (VoIP), and Multimedia services. LTE complements existing 3G solutions by leveraging wider bandwidths (up to 20MHz), and advanced antenna techniques (MIMO, SDMA and Beam forming). LTE and UMB have similar features and are expected to have similar performance.
  197. Match result

    The template and template identifier of an enroll as a result of the comparison performed by a biometric system of the submitted biometric data with the collection of stored reference templates. The match result is associated to a match score.
  198. Match Score

    A numeric value associated to a candidate derived from the comparison by the biometric system of a biometric data with the template of the candidate. It is used for ordering the different results of the matches done by the biometric system for identification. It is the higher the score, the closer the candidate and the biometric data.
  199. Matching

    It is the comparison of biometric templates to determine their degree of similarity or correlation. A match attempt results in a score that, in most systems, is compared against a threshold. If the score exceeds the threshold, the result is a match; if the score falls below the threshold, the result is a non-match.
  200. MB

    It is Megabyte. It is a measure of computer processor storage and real and virtual memory. It measured as 1,048,576 bytes in decimal notation.
  201. MBMS

    It is Multimedia Broadcasting Multicasting Service. It enables one source to simultaneously send data, such as video or audio programming, to multiple users who subscribe to the service.
  202. Mbps

    It is Megabits per second. It measured as one million bits per second. A measurement of the amount of data transferred in one second between two telecommunication points.
  203. Mediacast

    It occasionally used to refer to the multicast delivery of a wide variety of TV-like programming to wireless devices.
  204. MediaFLO MDS

    It is MediaFLO Media Distribution System. It is a client-server solution that works in conjunction with FLO technology. Includes the tools to collect and manage content, bundle subscription packages, and merchandize and securely distribute content to wireless subscribers.
  205. MediaFLO System

    It is MediaFLO Media Distribution System. It is a client-server solution that works in conjunction with FLO technology. Includes the tools to collect and manage content, bundle subscription packages, and merchandize and securely distribute content to wireless subscribers.
  206. MEMS

    It is Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems. It is a technology that combines computers with tiny mechanical devices (such as sensors, valves or gears) for integration with integrated circuits. MEMS devices refer to mechanical components that are one micrometer (one millionth of a meter) in size.
  207. MHz

    It means Megahertz. It is one million hertz or cycles per second. A measurement often used to describe the speed of digital and analog signals.
  208. MIC

    He is the Ministry of Information and Communication. The Korean government agency is responsible for promoting Korea's information technology.
  209. Micro browser

    A Web browser specialized for a wireless phone, Smartphone or PDA optimized to run in the low-memory and small-screen environment of a handheld device.
  210. Middleware

    It is a type of software that connects or “glues together” two or more otherwise separate types of software and translates information between them. For example, middleware is used to allow access between two different databases on a network.
  211. MII

    He is the Ministry of Information Industry. The Chinese government agency is responsible for formulating China's information industry policies and strategic development.
  212. MIMO

    Multiple Inputs, Multiple Outputs. It is in wireless communications, an antenna technology that uses multiple antennas at the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver). Antennas at each end are combined to reduce errors and improve data speed. It can be used in conjunction with OFDM.
  213. Minutiae Points

    It is the Local ridge characteristics that occur at either a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending.
  214. MMS

    It is the Multimedia Messaging Service. Allows wireless device users to send multimedia, such as video or digital photos, from one device to another.
  215. MPEG-3 - a.k.a. MP3

    It is Moving Picture Experts Group-3. It is a standard for compressing audio into a compact file without losing a significant amount of its quality. Used for the mobile transmission and storage of audio files.
  216. MPEG-4 - a.k.a. MP4

    It is Moving Picture Experts Group-4. It is a standard for compressing video into a compact file without losing a significant amount of its quality. Used for the transmission and storage of images and video clips.
  217. MSC

    It is Mobile Switching Centre. A sophisticated telephone exchange that provides mobility management services, such as circuit-switched calling, and coordination between base stations (cell towers), networks and mobile users within a network.
  218. MSM

    It is Mobile Station Modem. It is wireless chipsets that enable mobile devices and handsets. MSMs ship with the Launchpad suite, an integrated set of advanced functions and capabilities such as multimedia, connectivity, position location, user interface and removable storage.
  219. Multicast

    It is simultaneous transmission of content from a single source to large numbers of wireless subscribers. Usually refers to the delivery of a wide variety of TV-like programming to wireless devices.
  220. Multimedia Platform

    It is platform of Mobile Station Modem (MSM) chipsets that promotes mainstream adoption of third-generation (3G) wireless multimedia with system and software solutions which enable video, audio, gaming and location-based products and services.
  221. Multipath

    The multiple paths a radio wave may follow between transmitter and receiver. In cellular communications, refers to a radio signal reaching the receiving antenna by two or more paths.
  222. Multipath Fading

    It is interference during wireless signal reception caused by the deflection of a radio signal off obstacles such as buildings, mountains and other large obstructions.
  223. Node

    It is a point of connection into a network. In packet-switched networks, a node is one of the many packet switches that form the network’s backbone.
  224. Node B

    Denotes the base transceiver station (BTS) in WCDMA technology. The transmitter(s) and receiver(s) used to communicate directly with wireless devices.
  225. OEL Display

    It is Organic Electroluminescent Display. It is a type of display technology that enables very bright flat screens. OEL displays are often used in small portable devices because they do not require a backlight, resulting in a lower power draw.
  226. OEM

    It is Original Equipment Manufacturer. It is The manufacture of a device (often a consumer electronics product) that is sold to another company which in turn sells the device to the end consumer under its own name.
  227. OFDM

    It is the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. It is a wireless communications technology and modulation technique that divides available spectrum into multiple radio frequency (RF) channels. In OFDM, a single transmitter transmits on many different, independent frequencies, which typically results in a signal with high resistance to interference.
  228. OFDMA

    It is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access. Wireless technology based on OFDM that offers forward- and reverse-link communications and broadband data speeds to support applications such as VPN access, video downloads and large file transfers.
  229. OMA

    Open Mobile Alliance. A standards body that develops open standards for wireless information and telephony services on digital mobile phones and other wireless terminals.
  230. One to many process

    It is an alternative term for identification.
  231. One to one process

    It is an alternative term for verification.
  232. Operating System - a.k.a. OS, O/S

    It is Software that manages the basic operations of a computer system. Examples include UNIX, Windows, Palm OS and Mac OS X.
  233. Operator

    A wireless network operator, also often referred to as a carrier or service provider, that provides mobile telecommunication services.
  234. OpEx

    It is Operational Expenditure. It is an expenditure connected to operating a business, including R&D, sales and marketing, and administrative costs.
  235. OSI

    Open Systems Interconnection. A reference model established by the ISO to provide a network design framework that allows equipment from different vendors to be able to communicate.
  236. Packet

    It is a digital "package" of data that enables efficient use of radio spectrum and routing over a network, such as the Internet or wireless networks. Each packet is numbered separately and includes the Internet address of the destination.
  237. Packet-Switched Network

    It is the Networks that transfer digital packets of data. Packet-switched networks are connectionless or “always on,” eliminating the need to connect to a network to send or receive data. In contrast, circuit-switched networks require a dedicated circuit, or connection, for the duration of the data transmission.
  238. Palm OS

    It is Palm operating system for handheld devices, including PDAs and smart phones.
  239. PC Card

    It is a wireless modem that can be used in a laptop or other mobile computing device to connect to the Internet. It Synonymises with PCMCIA card, WWAN (wireless wide area network) card and Air card.
  240. PCMCIA

    It is Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. An international association that standardizes credit-card sized wireless modems which can be inserted into laptops or other mobile computing devices to connect to the Internet. A Type II PC card is the most common PCMCIA card.
  241. PCS

    It is Personal Communications Services. It refers to the 1900 MHz cellular frequency band. It is more commonly used as a marketing term to describe digital wireless services in the Americas, regardless of the particular frequency band being used.
  242. PDA

    It is Personal Digital Assistant. A portable personal computing device used for text messaging, email, calendar, contacts and a wide range of other applications.
  243. PDC

    It is Personal Digital Cellular. The second-generation TDMA-based wireless technology used in Japan. PDC is incompatible with other wireless networks.
  244. PDSN

    It is Packet Data Serving Node. Refers to the routers used in CDMA2000 wireless networks that comprise the backbone of the network.
  245. PHY

    It is Physical Layer. It transmits raw bits of data by establishing and terminating connections to a networked communications resource. It refers to network hardware, physical cabling or a wireless connection. Considered layer one of the seven-layer OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model of data communications.
  246. Physical Biometric

    It is a biometric, which is characterized by a physical characteristic rather than a behavioural trait.
  247. PIC

    It is Pilot Interference Cancellation. It increases the reverse link capacity of CDMA-based technologies by removing interference from the pilot signal.
  248. PIM

    It is Personalized Information Manager. It is Software for keeping track of contact addresses and phone numbers, appointments, project schedules and task lists. It sometimes called a contact manager.
  249. Pixel

    It is one of the many tiny dots that represent a picture in a computer’s memory. Because pixels are so small and so numerous, they appear as a smooth, single image when displayed on paper or a computer monitor. Pixels vary in colour and intensity.
  250. Platinum Multicast

    Technology developed by Qualcomm that enables the delivery of video and audio programming to a large group of wireless subscribers, with more than three times the capacity of Gold Multicast. It is a software upgrade for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev. A networks.
  251. PNG

    It is Portable Network Graphics. It is a file format for image compression. It is a lossless format, which maintains all image information (such as number of pixels) when the image is viewed. In contrast, loss formats such as JPEG may lose image information when decompressed for viewing.
  252. Pocket PC

    A handheld computer that runs the Microsoft Pocket PC operating system or Microsoft Windows Mobile 2003 for the Pocket PC. Typically includes features such as word processing and spreadsheet applications, handwriting recognition and wireless Internet access.
  253. POP

    It is Persons of Population. It refers to total population coverage according to a wireless service provider’s license. In wire line communications, POP means Point of Presence, which is defined as the connectivity point between two networks.
  254. POTS

    It is Plain Old Telephone Service. It is the basic wired telephone line that supports standard single-line telephones, telephone lines and access to the PSTN (public switched telephone network).
  255. powerOne

    it is a family of power management devices that provide battery management, voltage regulation, charging functions and other supporting features.
  256. Pre-processing

    It is a separation of biometric relevant information from unnecessary data of recording. It is a strongly related to Feature extraction.
  257. Privacy-Protective

    It isa privacy-protective system is one used to protect or limit access to personal information, or which provide a means for an individual to establish a trusted identity.
  258. Privacy-Sympathetic

    It is a privacy-sympathetic system is one that limits access to and usage of personal data and in which decisions regarding design issues such as storage and transmission of biometric data are informed, if not driven, by privacy concerns.
  259. Privacy-Neutral

    It is a privacy-neutral system is one in which privacy is not an issue, or in which the potential privacy impact is slight. Privacy-neutral systems are difficult to misuse from a privacy perspective, but do not have the capability to protect personal privacy.
  260. Privacy-Invasive

    It is a privacy-invasive system facilitates or enables the usage of personal data in a fashion inconsistent with generally accepted privacy principles.
  261. Prototype (BioID)

    It is generally the Biometric template of a trained user. In BioID, a prototype contains all necessary data to enable a classifier to classify a specific person. Result of a training process.
  262. PPC

    It means Pay per Call. It is in contrast to flat rates offered by operators for monthly service under a contract. It is also a commonly used abbreviation for the Pocket PC.
  263. PPP

    It is Point-to-Point Protocol. A protocol for communication that allows two devices to transport packets over a data connection, such as a personal computer connected by phone line to a server.
  264. PPTP

    It is Point-to-Point Tunnelling Protocol. It is a protocol for communication that facilitates virtual private networking to enable secure remote access to corporate networks via the Internet.
  265. Protocol

    Within the context of data communications, a specific set of rules related to data transmission between two devices. Protocols set standard procedures that enable different types of data devices to recognize and communicate with each other.
  266. PSTN

    It is Public Switched Telephone Network. It refers to the local, long-distance and international phone system. In the United States, PSTN refers to the entire collection of interconnected phone companies.
  267. PTT

    It means Push-To-Talk. In two-way radio communications, PTT is an instant connection made between two cell phones. PTT works like a"walkie-talkie" and requires transmitters to use the same frequency. The best known example in the United States is Nextel's Direct Connect service.
  268. QCELP

    It is an audio file format supported by select PureVoice applications, which is a component of the Launchpad Suite. The file extension for this format is .qcp.
  269. QoS

    It is Quality of Service. It is a measure of network’s transmission reliability and efficiency. QoS is commonly used by network operators to indicate a higher level of service guarantee to customers.
  270. R-UIM - a.k.a. CDMA SIM card

    It is Removable User Interface Module. It is a removable card that can be inserted into certain CDMA phones and other mobile devices that makes global roaming possible across CDMA and GSM wireless networks. The R-UIM card identifies the user's subscriber information, such as handset number and wireless features, and can also store data, including telephone numbers and addresses.
  271. radioOne

    It is a family of radio frequency (RF) devices with support for all major air interfaces.
  272. Rake Receiver

    A radio receiver designed to counter the effects of multipath fading; commonly used in devices such as mobile phones. Uses several sub-receivers, each slightly delayed, to tune into the individual paths a radio wave follows (multipath). Each component is later combined to effectively strengthen the signal.
  273. Receive Diversity

    A method of using two separate handset-based antennas to improve signal reception, increase data rates and improve network capacity. It May also be used when a single device supports two different services, such as GPS for location-based services and CDMA for voice and data transmission.
  274. RF

    It means Radio Frequency. Measured in Hertz, MHz and GHz. Wireless and cordless telephones, radio and television broadcast stations, satellite communications systems and two-way radio services all operate using radio frequencies.
  275. RF CMOS

    It means Radio Frequency Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. It is a low-cost, high-volume digital process technology. CMOS-based devices use minimal power and don’t produce as much heat as other processing technologies. It allows more functions, such as the radio frequency (RF) and baseband components, to be integrated into a single chip.
  276. RNC

    It is the Radio Network Controller. Equipment in third-generation (3G) wireless networks that interfaces with the core network, controls the radio transmitters and receivers in Node Bs, and performs mobility functions.
  277. Roaming

    It refers to a cellular subscriber using mobile phone service while outside of his/her service provider's coverage area.
  278. ROC (Receiving Operating Curve)

    It is a curve allowing a direct interpretation of system performances where the FAR is plotted as a function of FRR.
  279. ROI

    It means Return on Investment. It is a financial performance measure to determine the relative attractiveness of a proposed investment. ROI is typically measured in dollars but can also be measured by less quantifiable benefits such as increased customer satisfaction.
  280. S-GPS

    It is Simultaneous-Global Positioning System. In telecommunications, the simultaneous operation of GPS location capabilities and CDMA2000 voice calls.
  281. SCM

    Supply Chain Management. The communications link between a company and its suppliers, distributors and customers. Wireless SCM solutions are deployed to allow mobile access to the Internet and private corporate intranets to more efficiently manage inventory.
  282. Score

    It is a number indicating the degree of similarity or correlation of a biometric match. Traditional authentication methods, passwords, PINs, keys, and tokens - are binary, offering only a strict yes/no response. This is not the case with most biometric systems. Nearly all biometric systems are based on matching algorithms that generate a score subsequent to a match attempt. This score represents the degree of correlation between the verification template and the enrollment template. There is no standard scale used for biometric scoring: for some vendors a scale of 1-100 might be used, others might use a scale of 1 to 1; some vendors may use a logarithmic scale and others a linear scale. Regardless of the scale employed this verification score is compared to the system's threshold to determine how successful a verification attempt has been.
  283. SDK

    It is Software Development Kit. A set of software tools, usually designed for use with a particular operating system that enables software developers to write programs that will work on the target operating system.
  284. Service Provider

    It is a "carrier" or "network operator" that provides mobile telecommunication services.
  285. SFA

    It means Sales Force Automation. A system that allows salespeople to record account and contact information, send form letters and schedule future activities. Wireless SFA solutions provide mobile employees with access to Web-based SFA databases via the Internet.
  286. SIM

    It means Subscriber Identity Module. A removable card built into all GSM phones and other mobile devices. The SIM identifies the user's subscriber information, such as handset number and wireless features, and can also store data, including telephone numbers and addresses.
  287. Single Error Rates

    It is the error rates state the likelihood of an error (false match, false non-match, or failure to enroll) for a single comparison of two biometric templates or for a single enrollment attempt. This can be thought of as a "single" error rate.
  288. SIP

    It is a Session Initiation Protocol. A standard protocol defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Used to initiate an interactive multimedia user session such as chat, video, voice or gaming.
  289. Smartphone

    It is a category of mobile phones that supports both wireless data and voice capabilities. Smart phones include enhanced software and applications, including operating systems such as Palm OS and Windows Mobile. In addition to telephone functionality, features on a Smartphone might include email, Internet access and remote access to corporate databases.
  290. SMIL

    It is Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. A programming language used to easily define and synchronize multimedia elements, such as video, sound and still images, for Internet usage. It is pronounced smile.
  291. SMS

    It means Short Messaging Service. It is a store-and-forward message service available on many second-generation and all third-generation wireless networks that allows users to send and receive short text messages over wireless devices.
  292. Speaker Identification

    It is the technology of comparing the vocal characteristics of an unknown speaker against a database of known speakers.
  293. Speaker Verification

    A Biometric Type that compares the vocal characteristics of the user. Text Dependent It is a speaker verification system that requires the user to speak only a preregistered word, number or phrase. Text Independent It is a speaker verification system that can cope with a full vocabulary.
  294. Speech processing

    Term used to refer to any mechanical or electronic system that processes speech. These include call processing and automatic fax sending.
  295. Speech recognition

    It is the systems that can recognize either specific spoken words and phrases or a whole vocabulary and react to what is being said.
  296. Spread Spectrum

    It is a method of transmitting a radio frequency (RF) signal by “spreading” it over a broad range of frequencies. This facilitates reduced interference and increased capacity within a particular radio frequency band. CDMA technology is based on spread spectrum.
  297. SS7

    It means Signalling System 7. The protocol used in public-switched telephone systems for establishing calls and providing services such as 800 numbers, call forwarding, caller ID and number portability.
  298. SSL

    Secure Sockets Layer. It is a protocol for managing the security of message transmission on the Internet, for example, between a Web server and a Web browser.
  299. STN-LCD

    It means Super Twisted Nomadic Liquid Crystal Display. A low-power LCD flat-panel display technology that requires each pixel to be refreshed many times per second, resulting in low response times. Requires less power and is less expensive than TFT technology.
  300. Submission

    It is the process whereby a user provides behavioral or physiological data in the form of biometric samples to a biometric system. A submission may require looking in the direction of a camera or placing a finger on a platen. Depending on the biometric system, a user may have to remove eyeglasses, remain still for a number of seconds, or recite a pass phrase in order to provide a biometric sample.
  301. Subscriber

    It is in wireless, a user of a mobile telecommunication service.
  302. Symbian OS

    It is an operating system for smart phones licensed by Symbian to handset manufacturers.
  303. Symmetric Encryption

    It is a secure method of converting data for transmission that uses the same cipher, or “key,” to encrypt and decrypt the message.
  304. Synchronous

    Communication transmissions that are timed by a clocking signal and occur with equal time intervals between them. An example is the constant transmission of time-sensitive data, such as real-time voice.
  305. Synchronous multimodality

    It isthe use of multiple biometric technologies in a single authentication process. For example, biometric systems find which use face and voice simultaneously, reducing the likelihood of fraud and reducing the time needed to verify.
  306. TCO

    It means Total Cost of Ownership. A financial measure commonly used by enterprises to calculate total relevant costs of a particular project. TCO includes the actual purchase price or cost of implementation plus relevant costs such as administration, maintenance, support, software and training.
  307. TCP/IP

    It refers to the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It is a communications protocol that has become the de facto standard protocol for the Internet. "TCP" provides transport functions, ensuring that the total amount of data sent is correctly received. "IP" provides the routing mechanism, ensuring the information reaches the correct destination.
  308. TD-SCDMA

    Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access. It is a third-generation, (3G) wireless standard that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous second generation wireless standards. It is one of the three international CDMA technology-based standards accepted by the ITU for third-generation wireless communications.
  309. TDD

    It refers to Time Division Duplexing. It is the application of time-division multiple access (TDMA) to separate inbound and outbound signals. Allows devices to transmit and receive on a single frequency at different time intervals.
  310. TDMA

    Time Division Multiple Access. It is a second-generation, digital wireless communication technology that increases the amount of data that can be delivered by dividing each cellular channel into time slots. Wireless standards that use TDMA technology include GSM, PDC and iDEN.
  311. Template Dormant Time

    It is the elapsed time between the creation, or last update, of a template and its current use.
  312. Template identifier

    The item used to tie the enroll to their own template to make sure the correct template is called up when required; this can be a PIN, password or card number.
  313. Template maturity

    It is the number of biometric samples, including the original sample, contributing to the template currently on file.
  314. Template or Biometric template

    Data structured set containing the biometric data of an enrolee used for data processing by a biometric system. The template is maintained on file or in a templates database.
  315. Terminal

    A device, such as a laptop or cell phone, used to access a network.
  316. TFT - a.k.a. Active Matrix Display Technology

    It is Thin-Film Transistor. The technology used to make liquid crystal display (LCD) display screens. It is commonly used in notebook and laptop computers.
  317. Threshold

    It is a predefined number, often controlled by a biometric system administrator, which establishes the degree of correlation necessary for a comparison to be deemed a match.
  318. TIA

    It refers to Telecommunications Industry Association. It is a U.S. trade association representing the communications and information technology industry. It is responsible for certain technical standards covering both wireless and wire line phone technology.
  319. Token

    It is a possession that shows the identity of its owner such as a smart card, a 2D bar-code on a physical support or a contactless card.
  320. Trait (BioID)

    One of the modalities BioID uses to identify persons. At the moment there exist three of them: face, mimic and voice.
  321. Tri-Mode - a.k.a. Triple Mode

    It refers Triple Mode. It is functionality that allows a mobile phone to transmit in three modes for wider coverage area. For example, a mobile phone may be equipped to use analog, 800 MHz cellular and 1900 MHz PCS frequencies to make and receive calls.
  322. Trigger (BioID)

    It is the Time when a recording is started. It determined by analyzing audio and video channel (if both of them are present).
  323. TV-Out

    Standard TV interface used to connect a mobile device to a compatible external device, such as a television or computer. Used to view images, watch video or play games.
  324. Two-Way Paging - a.k.a. Interactive Paging

    It is the ability to send and receive data via the Internet by way of a paging network.
  325. uiOne Delivery System

    A solution developed by Qualcomm that delivers themed and personalized user experiences with dynamic content to uiOne-enabled devices. It can be integrated into an operator’s existing content service offering.
  326. uiOne offering

    It is a Part of the suite of BREW products and services. It Enable the development and deployment of custom user interfaces for wireless phones. It includes the uiOne Toolkit, uiOne SDK (software development kit) and uiOne ART (applications, resources and templates).
  327. UMTS - a.k.a. WCDMA

    It is the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. A third-generation (3G), CDMA-based wireless communication standard that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous, second generation wireless technologies.
  328. Unified Content Delivery System

    Part of the deliveryOne suite, a rich-media content delivery system that enables operators to consolidate content services for mobile devices under a single service delivery system. It is a component of deliveryOne.
  329. Usurpator

    A person who submits a replication of a biometric sample of a legitimate enroll in either an intentional or inadvertent attempt to pass him/herself as this legitimate enroll. Contrast with Impostor.
  330. UTRAN

    It is UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network. The Node Bs and radio network controllers that make up a UMTS network. It enables connectivity between the user equipment and the core network.
  331. UWB

    It is Ultra Wideband. It is a wireless technology for transmitting large amounts of digital data over a wide spectrum of frequency bands across relatively short distances.
  332. Value Platform

    It is a platform of Mobile Station Modem (MSM) chipsets which enables affordable wireless voice and data services, including basic colour screens, music, ringtones and voice-recognition features.
  333. Verification

    The "one-to-one" process of comparing a submitted biometric sample against the biometric reference template of a single enroll whose identity is being claimed, to determine whether it matches the enroll's template. Contrast with Biometric identification.
  334. Voice Recognition

    The technology found on some wireless phones, PCs and other communication devices that enables the device to respond to spoken commands.
  335. VoIP

    It is the Voice over Internet Protocol. The routing of voice conversations, sent as digital packets of data, over the Internet or other IP network.
  336. VPN

    It is Virtual Private Network. It is a network that is constructed using public wires to connect remote offices or individual users to their organizations’ network. VPNs use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure network access to authorized users. VPNs are an essential component of secure wireless computing for the enterprise.
  337. WAN

    It is the Wide Area Network. It is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. A WAN may be privately owned or rented, but the term usually refers to a public network.
  338. WCDMA - a.k.a. UMTS

    Wideband CDMA. A third-generation (3G), CDMA-based wireless communication technology that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous, second-generation wireless technologies.
  339. WEP

    It is Wired Equivalency Privacy. An optional feature for Wi-Fi and 802.11b that offers privacy by using an encryption algorithm that scrambles data before any data is transmitted.
  340. Wi-Fi

    Short for "Wireless Fidelity" and another name for WLAN (wireless local area network). It allows a mobile user to connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless connection. Wi-Fi has been deployed in airports, universities, bookstores, coffee shops, office campuses and private residences.
  341. WiMAX

    It is Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a group of proposed wireless standards for high-throughput broadband connections over long distances. Applications include "last mile" broadband connections and hot spots. It is a trade name for a new family of IEEE 802.16 wireless standards.
  342. Windows Mobile

    It is Microsoft's global brand for its Pocket PC Operating System. Windows Mobile supports various Pocket PC devices including smart phones and includes features such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and email synchronization.
  343. Wireless Node

    A device equipped with wireless network interface capability.
  344. Wireless Spectrum

    It is a band of frequencies in which wireless signals travel carrying voice and data.
  345. WirelessMAN

    It is Wireless Metropolitan Area Network. It enables broadband network access with exterior antennas that communicate with base stations that are connected to core network. It is an alternative to fixed-line networks. It developed by the IEEE 802.16 Working Group.
  346. WLAN

    It is Wireless Local Area Network. It allows a mobile user to connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless connection. WLANs have been deployed in airports, universities, bookstores, coffee shops, office campuses and private residences.
  347. WPAN

    It is Wireless Personal Area Network. It is a computer network that wirelessly connects devices in a short range (about 30 feet), such as a mobile phone to a wireless mouse or keyboard. Bluetooth is a WPAN technology.
  348. WWAN

    It is Wireless Wide Area Network. Geographically separate computer networks joined through a wireless connection. A WWAN is similar to a WLAN (wireless local area network), but typically covers an entire metropolitan or nationwide area.
  349. XML

    It means extensible Mark-up Language. A computer language developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) designed to improve the functionality of the Internet by providing a more flexible way to share basic data, such as phone numbers or addresses. For example, XML may be used to share data between desktop computers and wireless devices.
  350. Zero-effort attempts

    An impostor attempt is classed as "zero-effort" if the individual submits their own biometric feature as if they were attempting successful verification against their own template.
  351. ZIF - a.k.a. Direct Conversion

    It is the Zero Intermediate Frequency. It is a radio frequency architecture that eliminates the entire intermediate frequency section of the cellular phone, resulting in smaller-sized wireless devices.