This glossary contains explanations of concepts relevant to a certain field of study or action. In this sense, the term is related to the computational lexicon.
This glossary contains explanations of concepts relevant to a certain field of study or action. In this sense, the term is related to the computational lexicon.
Access PointA network device, or communication hub, that connects wireless devices to a wired local area network (LAN).
AccuracyIt is a computed indicator of the system's ability to place the correct mate within a specified position on the candidate list as a result of the matching process.
Acquisition (BioID)It is a part of the biometric system that controls audio and video recording. Acquisition runs in the background and provides audio and video data.
Acquisition deviceThe hardware used to acquire biometric samples. The following acquisition devices are associated with each biometric technology.
Active imposter acceptanceIt is the Acceptance of a biometric sample submitted by someone attempting to gain illegal entry to a biometric system.
AESIt is the Advanced Encryption Standard. A standard for encryption intended to replace the DES (Data Encryption Standard). AES supports key lengths ranging from 128 to 256 bits.
AFISAutomated Fingerprint Identification System. A system originally developed for use by law enforcement agencies, which compares a single fingerprint with a database of fingerprint images. Subsequent developments have seen its use in commercial applications, where a client or customer has their finger image compared with existing personal data by placing a finger on a scanner, or by the scanning of inked paper impressions.
A-GPSIt is the Assisted-Global Positioning System. A technology used to determine an end-userÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s position in urban areas or dense outdoor environments. It differs from traditional GPS by adding an assistance server, which shares tasks with the A-GPS receiver to expedite position location. It is commonly associated with location-based services (LBS).
Air InterfaceIt is the radio frequency portion of the circuit (connection) between the cellular handset or wireless modem and the active base station (cell tower).
AircardIt is a wireless modem that can be used in a laptop or other mobile computing device to connect to the Internet. Aircard has become synonymous with wireless wide area network (WWAN) card, PCMCIA card and wireless PC card and is a registered trademark of Sierra Wireless.
AlogrithmIt is a sequence of instructions that tells a system how to solve a problem. It used by biometric systems, for example, to tell whether a sample and a template are a match. Cryptographic algorithms are used to encrypt sensitive data files, to encrypt and decrypt messages, and to digitally sign documents.
AMPSIt is the Advanced Mobile Phone Service. It is the first analog cellular phone system commercially deployed in the 1980s.
AnalogIn telecommunications, an early wireless network technology involving the modulation of radio signals, which transmit information as sound waves over radio signals allowing one call per channel. Most wireless transmission is now done digitally.
ANSIIt is The American National Standards Institute. It is a standards-setting, non-governmental organization that develops and publishes standards for transmission codes and protocols for use in the United States. ANSI serves as the official U.S. member body to the worlds leading standards bodies, including the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
APIIt is the Application Programming Interface. A computer code which is a set of instructions or services used to standardize an application. Any system compatible with the API can then be added or interchanged by the application developer. Or it is a set of standard methods or functions that application programs can use to access a particular set of services or tools, such as network services and program-to-program commands. For example, BREW provides a set of APIs for the development of applications for wireless devices.
ARPUAverage Revenue Per User. The monthly revenue generated by a consumers wireless device usage. ARPU is commonly used by wireless network operators and telecommunications/wireless analysts to estimate ROI (return on investment) measures for investments in network infrastructure and end-user services.
ARTIt is the Available Revenue Time. Term used frequently in the wireless industry referring to the amount of user time available from which carriers may generate revenue. Revenue is typically generated by billing for services such as SMS, video, mobile TV, or other multi-media options typical in modern convergent devices.
ASICIT is the Application Specific Integrated Circuit. An integrated circuit developed for specific applications to improve performance.
Asymmetric Encryption - a.k.a. Public Key EncryptionA method of securing data for transmission that equips each user with two keys, a private key and a public key. Each individual uses the others public key to encrypt the data that is sent and then each individual uses their own private key to decrypt the data received. A trusted third party often provides keys.
AsynchronousIT is the Communication signals that do not rely on a shared timing mechanism to transmit and receive information. Examples are GSM and WCDMA networks.
Asynchronous multimodalityIt is the systems that require that a user verify through more than one biometric in sequence. Asynchronous multimodal solutions are comprised of one, two, or three distinct authentication processes. A typical user interaction will consist of verification on finger scan, then face if finger is successful.
Audit trailIn computer/network systems: Record of events (protocols, written documents, and other evidence) which can be used to trace the activities and usage of a system. Such material is crucial when tracking down successful attacks/attackers, determining how the attacks happened, and being able to use this evidence in a court of law.
AuthenticationIt is an alternative term for verification. It is the process of establishing the validity of the user attempting to gain access to a system. Primary authentication methods are: * Access passwords (something the user knows) * Access tokens (something the user owns) * Biometrics * Geography (a workstation, for example)
BackhaulRefers to transporting data or voice between the wireless network and the PDSN (packed data serving node, in wireless communications), or between the wireless network and the Internet (in a wireless local area network implementation).
BandIt is in wireless communications, a frequency or contiguous range of frequencies.
BandwidthIn wireless communications, the width or capacity of a communications channel. Analog bandwidth is measured in hertz (Hz). Digital bandwidth is the volume of data that a channel can carry and is measured in bits per second (bps).
Base StationOften called a cell tower or a cell site, a base station is a transmitter/receiver location that establishes radio links between the wireless system and the wireless device. The base station includes an antenna tower, transmission radios and radio controllers. Each geographic area in a cellular network requires a base station.
BCMCSBroadcast Multicast Service. A standard being developed for third-generation (3G) cellular networks. IT provides transmission of multimedia data from a single source to all subscribers in a specific area. Examples of multicast content could include video and movie clips, news, sports or stock quotes.
Behavioural biometricA biometric, which is characterized by a behavioural trait that is learned and acquired over time as opposed to a physical characteristic.
BioAPIBioAPI V1.0, developed by the BioAPI consortium, and released in March 2000. It designed to produce a standard biometric API aiding developers and consumers.
BiometricIt is one of various technologies that utilize behavioral or physiological characteristics to determine or verify identity. A Finger-scan is a commonly used biometric. A Plural form also acceptable: “Retina-scan and iris-scan are eye-based biometrics." As a noun but Biometric as an adjective it means of or pertaining to technologies that utilize behavioral or physiological characteristics to determine or verify identity. EG: “Do you plan to use biometric identification or older types of identification?"
Biometric dataIt is the extracted information taken from the biometric sample and used to build a reference template.
Biometric sampleIt is the raw data representing a biometric characteristic of an applicant as captured by a biometric system. It also the identifiable, unprocessed image or recording of a physiological or behavioral characteristic, acquired during submission, used to generate biometric templates. It is also referred to as biometric data.
Biometric systemThe integrated biometric hardware and software used to conduct biometric identification or verification. An automated system capable of * capturing a biometric sample from an applicant or a biometric evidence, * extracting biometric data from that sample, * comparing the biometric data with that contained in one or more reference templates, * deciding how well they match, * indicating whether or not an authentication of identity or identification has been achieved * storing and managing the information dedicated to the biometric applications.
Unimodal biometric systemIt is a biometric system which uses a single biometric.
Multimodal biometric systemIt is a biometric system which uses multiple biometrics.
BiometricsIt is the field relating to biometric identification. EG: “What is the future of biometrics?"
BlackberryA mobile device that supports wireless voice and data capabilities, including email, Web browsing, and contact and task management applications. A wireless service that provides data transmission service is required. Blackberry is a product name of Research in Motion (RIM).
BluetoothIt is a short-range wireless technology that interconnects devices such as phones, computers, keyboards, microphones and mice. Bluetooth supports both voice and data communications.
bpsBits Per Second. It is the standard for measuring the smallest unit of information in digital communications and data processing.
BREWIt is the Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless. It is an open, extensible client platform developed by Qualcomm to support system and application software, including personalized and branded user interfaces. IT may be used with most wireless devices and networks. It is a component of the BREW System.
BREW clientIt is the handset client component of the BREW solution developed by Qualcomm. An open, extensible client platform that supports system and application software, including personalized and branded user interfaces. It is Compatible with most wireless devices and networks.
BREW Delivery SystemA complete content delivery service from Qualcomm designed specifically for operators. It solves important issues such as device fragmentation and consistent device experience via devices featuring the BREW client.
BREW SDKIt is the Developed to enable software developers to write applications for BREW devices. It provides developers with general development and debugging tools, sample applications with source code, user guides and testing tools.
BREW solutionA family of Qualcomm products and services dedicated to enabling development and deployment of wireless data applications and services. It Consists of an open, extensible client platform, support for personalized and branded user interfaces, and a J2EE-based, modular delivery system.
BroadbandIt is the generic term for high-speed digital Internet connections, such as wire line, DSL or cable modems and wireless third-generation technologies, such as WCDMA (UMTS), CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and HSDPA.
BSCIt is the Base Station Controller. A component of a base station, the BSC supervises the functioning and control of multiple base transceiver stations and acts as a small switch.
BTSIt is the Base Transceiver Station. It includes the electronic equipment and the antenna that comprises a PCS (personal communications services) facility or single base station.
Buffer overflowIt is the most common cause of current security vulnerabilities. A buffer overflow occurs when more data is put into a temporary data storage area (buffer) than the buffer can hold. Because buffers can only hold a finite amount of data, the extra information can overflow into adjacent buffers, corrupting or overwriting the data in them. Programming errors are the one of the most frequent causes of buffer overflow problems. In attacks which exploit buffer vulnerabilities, extra data is sent to the buffer with code designed to trigger specific actions, and which can damage files, change data, or disclose confidential information. Buffer overflow attacks may have arisen from poor use of the C programming language.
CandidateReference template and template identifier selected by the matcher as a possible match for the template issued from the submitted biometric sample.
CAPEXIt is the Capital Expenditure. It is an expenditure connected to acquiring or upgrading physical assets such as equipment, property or buildings.
CaptureIt is the method of taking a biometric sample from an applicant, live capture; it is the process of capturing a biometric sample by an interaction between an applicant and a biometric system. And dead capture: Capture of a biometric sample from biometric evidence
CarrierIn wireless communications, an electromagnetic pulse or radio wave transmitted at a steady base frequency. It used to transmit radio signals to a radio receiver. Also commonly used to refer to a wireless network operator or service provider that provides mobile telecommunications services.
CCDCharge coupled device. It is a light-sensitive chip or image sensor used in scanners and digital cameras that converts light into proportional (analog) electrical currents. The AD converter converts analogue signals into pixel values.
CDGCDMA Development Group. It is an international consortium of companies working together to lead the adoption and evolution of CDMA-based wireless systems around the world.
CDMACode Division Multiple Access. It is a digital wireless technology that works by converting analog information, such as speech, into digital information, which is then transmitted as a radio signal over a wireless network. CDMA uses spread-spectrum technology, decreasing potential interference while achieving privacy. CDMA technology is the basis for third-generation (3G) wireless technologies which offer increased voice capacity and provide higher data rates than 2G and 2.5G networks.
CDMA2000 - a.k.a. IS-2000CDMA2000 (also known as CDMA2000 1X) is a family of 3G wireless standards that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous, second generation wireless standards. The CDMA2000 family of standards include CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. CDMA2000 is a direct evolution of the cdmaOne standard.
CDMA2000 1X - a.k.a. 1X, 1XRTT, CDMA2000A family of third-generation (3G) wireless standards that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous, second-generation wireless standards. The CDMA2000 family of standards includes CDMA2000 1X and CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. CDMA2000 is a direct evolution of cdmaOne.
CDMA2000 1xEV-DO - a.k.a. EV-DO, DOIt is the CDMA2000 1X Evolution - Data Optimized. Third-generation wireless technology that offers broadband data speeds to support applications such as VPN access, video downloads and large file transfers. CDMA2000 1xEV-DO is a direct evolution of CDMA2000 1X.
CDMA2000 1xEV-DVIt is the CDMA2000 1X Evolution Data and Voice. It is the Third-generation wireless technology that supports high-speed voice and data on the same channel. It enables Internet connectivity for cellular phones, PDAs and other mobile devices.
cdmaOneA brand name trademarked and reserved for the exclusive use of the CDMA Development Group (CDG) member companies. cdmaOne was the coined term for Qualcomm's original CDMA systems based on the IS-95A and IS-95B standards, which made use of 1.25 MHz channels to deliver voice and data.
CDPDIt is the Cellular Digital Packet Data. It is an add-on technology that enables first-generation (1G) analog systems to provide packet data. Today, 2.5G and 3G systems are replacing CDPD.
CellIt is the geographic area encompassing the signal range from one base station. Wireless networks are comprised of many overlapping cells to efficiently use radio spectrum for wireless transmissions.
Cell SiteA fixed transmitter/receiver location, also known as a base station or a cell tower, which establishes communications between a wireless system and a wireless device using radio links. The cell site includes an antenna tower, transmission radios and radio controllers.
Cell TowerIt is a fixed transmitter/receiver location, also known as a base station or a cell site, which establishes communications between a wireless system and a wireless device using radio links. The cell tower includes an antenna tower, transmission radios and radio controllers.
CellularAnalog or digital communications that provide a consumer with a wireless connection from the mobile device to a relatively nearby transmitter (base station). The transmitterÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s coverage area is called a cell.
ChannelIt is the amount of wireless spectrum occupied by a specific technology implementation. For cellular communications, there is a transmit side and a receive side. For example, a 5 MHz channel uses 5 MHz to transmit and 5 MHz to receive, using a total of 10 MHz of wireless spectrum.
Circuit-Switched NetworkNetworks that temporarily establish a physical circuit "connection", and keep that circuit reserved for the user until a disconnect signal is received. A dial-up modem is an example of a circuit-switched connection. In contrast, It is a packed-switched network which are connectionless or “always on" eliminating the need to initiate a connection for data transfer.
ClassificationIt is the process of checking a person's identity. Could be either verification or identification.
Classification result (BioID)It contains the result of a single verification/classification. It consists of fusion results and (optionally) the results for the single traits. A rating for every trained class is given, as well as set of classification parameters (weights, thresholds) and the final result (acceptance/rejection).
Classifier (BioID)It is a module that matches features of a recording against the prototypes of one or more learned persons. Also calculates the prototypes from training data.
ClipcastIt is a short-format video content for wireless devices.
CMXIt is the Compact Media Extensions. QualcommÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s multimedia software that enables developers to create cost-effective, customized ringtones and screensavers. CMX enables time-synchronization of MIDI-based music, text, graphics, animation and voice.
Compact Flash CardIt is the Compact Media Extensions. QualcommÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s multimedia software that enables developers to create cost-effective, customized ringtones and screensavers. CMX enables time-synchronization of MIDI-based music, text, graphics, animation and voice.
Compact Flash CardOne of a variety of small removable flash memory cards used in mobile devices to provide additional storage capacity.
ComparisonIt is the process of comparing biometric data with a previously stored reference template or templates.
Contact/ContactlessIn regard to chip cards: whether the card is read by direct contact with a reader or has a transmitter/receiver system which allows it to be read using radio frequency technology (up to a certain distance).
Convergence PlatformQualcomm's platform of Mobile Station Modem (MSM) chipsets with dual processors to enable the processing speeds necessary to converge wireless with consumer electronics devices. It supports higher-speed wireless data services such as real-time interactive gaming and higher-resolution digital camera functionality.
Coverage AreaGeographic area served by a cellular system in which service is available to wireless users.
COWIt is Cell on Wheels. A complete mobile base station used to provide cellular coverage where coverage is unavailable. It is often used to enhance coverage for special events or as a temporary backup service.
CRMIt is Customer Relationship Management. It is an integrated information management system that is used to plan, schedule and control the pre- and post-sales activities within an organization to improve customer tracking and communication. Enterprises can wirelessly extend their CRM solutions, enabling sales professionals to remotely access timely customer data for increased productivity and improved customer service.
Crossover error rate (CER)It is a comparison metric for different biometric devices and technologies; the error rate at which FAR equals FRR. It is the lower the CER, the more accurate and reliable the biometric device.
Data vaultingIt is the process of sending data off site, where it can be protected from hardware failures, theft, and other threats. Several companies now offer Web backup services that compress, encrypt, and periodically transmit a customer's data to a remote vault. In most cases, the vaults have auxiliary power supplies, powerful computers, and manned security. Also referred to as a remote backup service (RBS).
DecisionIt is the result of the comparison between the score and the threshold. The decisions a biometric system can make include match, non-match, and inconclusive, although varying degrees of strong matches and non-matches are possible. Either/or multimodality describes systems that offer multiple biometric technologies, but only require verification through a single technology.
Decision thresholdThe acceptance or rejection of a candidate is dependent on the match score falling above or below the threshold. The threshold may be adjustable so that the biometric system can be more or less strict, depending on the requirements of any given biometric application.
deliveryOneIt is a suite of server-based content delivery products. It provides operators with varied solutions for delivering wireless data content and custom user interfaces. Includes the BREW Delivery System (BDS) and the uiOne Delivery System (UDS).
DESIt is Data Encryption Standard. Protects unclassified computer data using a 56-bit, private key, symmetric cryptographic algorithm; issued as a Federal Information Processing Standard.
DigitalA form of transmission that transforms analog signals, such as voice, into a series of electrical or optical pulses that represent the binary digits 0 and 1. This numerical data is then converted into various forms depending on the type of network, such as radio waves for wireless transmission, electronic pulses for a wired network or optical light waves for fiber optics. Digital networks offer superior Quality of Service (QoS), secure transmission and more bandwidth than analog lines.
Digital certificateIn the PKI environment, the data, equivalent to an identity card, issued to a user by a CA (Certificate authority), which he/she uses during business transactions to prove his/her identity.
Digital signatureThe number derived by performing cryptographic operations on the text to be signed. This operation, or hash function (also called hash algorithm), is performed on the binary code of the text. The result is known as the message digests, and always has a fixed length. A signature algorithm is applied to the message digest, resulting in the digital signature.
DOTIt is Department of Telecommunications. The India government body that covers policy, licensing, and coordination of telegraphs, telephones, wireless, data, facsimile and telematic communications.
Downlink - a.k.a. Forward LinkIt is the connection from the network to the end-user communications device. In satellite communications, also refers to the connection from a satellite to a terrestrial receiver.
DRMIt is Digital Rights Management. It is the technology for copyright protection of digital media, including ringtones, music, graphics and video. Developed to prevent the illegal distribution of purchased content over the Internet.
DSAIt is a digital Signature Algorithm. Presented in 1991 by the NIST and patented in 1993. A publicly available one-way algorithm used to generate or verify digital signatures of a text to be signed (not to encrypt/decrypt information). As input, DSA needs * The message digest of the message to be signed 2. The signer's private key 3. A random number Its output is a pair of numbers (often referred to as r and s) which together, make up the digital signature. To verify a digital signature, DSA needs as input * The message digest of the text to be verified 2. The signer's public key 3. The value s from the signature DSA then makes a computation, the output of which is called v, for example. If v = r, then the signature verifies.
DSSDigital Signature Standard. Developed by FIPS (U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard). Adopted the DSA in the early 1990s.
DSSSDirect Sequence Spread Spectrum. A spread spectrum technique used in radio transmission systems, such as CDMA, wireless local area networks (WLAN) and some personal communications services (PCS) systems. DSSS converts a data stream into a stream of packets, which are then transmitted over a wide range of frequencies using a "scattering" approach.
Dual BandIt is functionality that allows a mobile phone to transmit in two frequencies for wider coverage area. For example, a mobile phone may be equipped to use both the 800 MHz cellular and 1900 MHz PCS frequencies to send and receive calls.
Dual ModeIt is functionality that allows a mobile phone to operate in two different modes for greater roaming capabilities. For example, a mobile phone may be equipped to support both CDMA2000 and WCDMA standards to send and receive calls.
Duplicate searchComputer generated search performed to detect any duplicated templates stored in a permanent database.
DVB-HIt is the Digital Video Broadcasting - Handhelds. It is a multicast technology standard specified by the DVB Project for the multicast delivery of TV-like programming to wireless devices. With DVB-H, one signal is sent from the base station and received by all subscribing devices within range.
DVB ProjectIt is Digital Video Broadcasting Project. A consortium of broadcasters, manufacturers, network operators, software developers, regulatory bodies and others committed to designing global standards for the delivery of digital television and data services.
E911It Enhanced 911. It is a U.S. Government-mandated capability that automatically provides the callerÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s geographic location and wireless phone number to the 911 call centre. The goal of the FCCÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s wireless E911 rules is to improve the effectiveness of wireless 911 services by providing emergency dispatchers with location information to within 50 to 300 meters of the callerÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s exact location.
EDGEIt enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution. A software/hardware enhancement for existing GSM networks designed to provide higher data rates to enhance the delivery of multimedia and other broadband applications for wireless devices.
EmbeddedIn wireless communications, used to describe capabilities, such as Internet access, that are contained within a device.
EncryptionIt is the scrambling of data so that it becomes difficult to unscramble or decipher. Scrambled data is called cipher text, as opposed to unscrambled data, which is called plaintext. Unscrambling cipher text is called decryption. Data encryption is done by the use of an algorithm and a key. The key is used by the algorithm to scramble and unscramble the data. The algorithm can be public (it is analysis by the cryptographic community), but the key must be kept private. Encryption does not make unauthorized decryption impossible, but merely difficult. Time, and the power (ever increasing) of computers are the factors involved in the feasibility of decryption.In security, encryption is the ciphering of data by applying an algorithm to plain text. Types include Asymmetric, Symmetric and Public Key.
End-to-End SecurityIt is in wireless communications, safeguarding information in a network by encryption to ensure secure data transmission from the point of origin to the point of destination.
Enhanced Multimedia PlatformIt is a platform of Mobile Station Modem (MSM) chipsets with increased processing power to support faster, third-generation (3G) wireless multimedia. Also supports larger, high-resolution screens for improved viewing of multimedia features such as video-on-demand, 3D gaming and video telephony.
EnrollIt is a person who has a biometric stored reference template.
EnrollmentIt is the initial process of collecting biometric data from a user and then storing it in a template for later comparison. It is the process of collecting biometric samples from an applicant and the subsequent preparation, and storage of biometric reference templates representing that person's identity.
ERPEnterprise Resource Planning. A business management system that integrates all major facets of a business, such as manufacturing, finance, sales and human resources functions. ERP software links together various back-office computer systems, including SFA (sales force automation) and CRM (customer relationship management) applications. ERP software typically incorporates heavy use of telecommunications, including providing wireless access to these systems to enable real-time information requests.
EV-DOThird-generation wireless technology that offers broadband data speeds to support applications such as VPN access, video downloads and large file transfers.
Failure to enrol (FE)It is the failure of the biometric system to capture and extract biometric data for an applicant or biometric evidence. The failure may be due to capture the biometric sample or to extract data (of sufficient quality).
Failure to enrol rate (FER)It is the proportion of the population of applicants failing to complete enrolment.
False AcceptanceResult of a biometric request in the case of an Impostor Attempt provided by a biometric system which consists in a positive verification or a wrong identification of the applicant. Used in the context of Positive Claim of Identity. in the case of a candidate list, each candidate of the list before the correctly identified candidate is in a "False Acceptance" situation
False-acceptance rate (FAR)It is the percentage of imposters incorrectly matched to a valid user's biometric.
False RejectionResult of a Biometric Request in the case of a Genuine Attempt provided by a Biometric System which consists in a negative Verification or a wrong Identification of the Applicant. Used in the context of Positive Claim of Identity.
False-rejection rate (FRR)It is the percentage of incorrectly rejected valid users.
FAR - False Acceptance RateIt is over a designated number of Impostor Attempts, the proportion of positive answers given by the biometric system. It is stated as follows: FAR = NFA/NIIA or FAR=NFA/NIVA Where FAR is the false acceptance rate It is where NFA (Number of False Acceptances) is the number of positive answers of the system in the case of Impostor Attempts. Where NIIA (Number of Impostor Identification Attempts) is the number of Attempts corresponding to a Impostor Implicit Claim of Identity. Where NIVA (Number of Impostor Verification Attempts) is the number of Attempts corresponding to a Impostor Explicit Claim of Identity.
FAR CurveCurve where FAR is plotted as a function of the Decision Threshold.
FCCIt is the Federal Communications Commission. It is the U.S. government agency responsible for regulation of the communications industry.
Feature (BioID)Result of the pre-processing and feature extraction process. Features contain classification relevant information in a compact representation. If a video channel is present, a feature set also contains a thumbnail image.
Feature extractionIt is the automated process of locating and encoding distinctive characteristics from a biometric sample in order to generate a template.
Feature Extraction (BioID)Calculation of the features that are going to be classified from recorded and/or pre-processed data.
FFAIt is Field Force Automation. Information technology solutions that help companies improve communication with employees in the field. Wireless FFA solutions increase productivity by enabling mobile employees to remotely access centralized databases, finalize service calls, update time/expense reports and schedule appointments.
FHSSIt is Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. A technique used in radio transmission systems, such as wireless local area networks (WLAN) and select mobile networks. FHSS converts a data stream into a stream of packets which are then sent in short bursts via transmitters and receivers that move or Ã¢â‚¬Å“hopÃ¢â‚¬Â from one frequency to another.
FirewallIt is a combination of hardware and software that protects a computer or group of computers from an attack by an outside network or computer user. A firewall enforces a boundary between two or more networks.
Flash MemoryIt is a type of memory that can be erased and reprogrammed (rewritten). It is commonly used in mobile phones, digital cameras, audio players and removable memory cards, such as Memory Sticks or Secure Digital (SD) Cards.
FLASH-OFDMFast Low-latency Access with Seamless Handoff Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. It is an OFDMA implementation for high-speed mobile wireless data. It delivers data rates comparable to wired broadband services such as DSL and cable modems. FLASH-OFDM is a product name of Flarion Technologies.
FLOIt is Forward Link Only. An air interface developed by Qualcomm to support mobile multicast multimedia services for wireless consumers; based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Enables the simultaneous delivery of TV- and radio-like programming to many wireless devices; also supports IP data casting.
FLO ForumAn organization of wireless industry leaders committed to advancing the global standardization of FLO technology. Oversees the evolution of the air interface specification for FLO, promotes its standardization, and manages compliance and certification benchmarks for the technology.
FMR - False Match RateIt is an alternative term for False Acceptance Rate. Used in the context of Negative Claim of Identity.
FNMR - False Non Match RateIt is an alternative term for False Rejection Rate. Used in the context of Negative Claim of Identity.
Forward Link - a.k.a. DownlinkIt is the connection from the network to the end-user communications device. In satellite communications, also refers to the connection from a satellite to a terrestrial receiver.
FOMAIt is NTT DoCoMoÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s WCDMA-compliant 3G network. It supports high-volume, high-speed wireless data transmission to enable multimedia services such as videophone and video mail.
FPSIt is in video, frames per second.
Frame RelayUses a form of packet-switching and multiplexes data. A frame relay network is able to accommodate data packets of various sizes associated with virtually any native data protocol. It is an access standard defined by the ITU.
FrequencyIt is the rate at which an electromagnetic waveform alternates. It usually measured in hertz (Hz) or megahertz (MHz).
FRR - False Rejection RateIt is over a designated number of Genuine Attempts, the proportion of negative answers given by the Biometric System. It is stated as follows: FRR=NFR/NEIA or FRR=NFR/NEVA Where FRR is the false rejection rate Where NFR (Number of False Rejection): number of negative answers of the Biometric System in the case of Genuine Attempts. It is where NEIA (Number of enroll Identification Attempts) is the number of Attempts corresponding to a Genuine Implicit Claim of Identity. It is where NEVA (Number of Enroll Verification Attempts) is the number of Attempts corresponding to a Genuine Explicit Claim of Identity.
FRR CurveCurve where FRR is plotted as a function of the Decision Threshold.
GAITIt is GSM ANSI-136 Interoperability Team. A wireless standard that enables GSM and TDMA networks to interoperate. It requires special handsets (often called Ã¢â‚¬Å“GAIT phonesÃ¢â‚¬Â) and used in conjunction with GAIT networking.
GatewayA network point that acts as an entrance to another network.
GBIt is Gigabyte. It is a measure of computer data storage capacity. It measured as approximately a billion bytes or 1,073,741,824 in decimal notation.
GHzIt is Gigahertz. It is a measure of frequency equal to a billion hertz or a thousand megahertz (MHz). Gigahertz is often used to measure UHF (ultra-high frequency) or to express microprocessor clock speed in some computers.
Gold MulticastTechnology developed by Qualcomm that enables clip casting or multicasting of multimedia content to a group of wireless subscribers. Based on the BCMCS standard, Gold Multicast is a software upgrade for existing CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rel. 0 networks.
GPRSIt is General Packet Radio Service. It is a 2.5G technology standard that is an upgrade to a GSM network. It adds packet data to the existing voice network.
GPSIt is Global Positioning System. It is a worldwide radio-navigation system developed by the U.S. Department of Defence to enable users to determine their exact location anywhere on the globe from land, air or sea. GPS works via radio signals sent from orbiting satellites to receivers on the ground. GPS receivers are used in a wide range of commercial applications from fleet management to rural navigation.
gpsOneIt is an assisted-GPS (A-GPS) position-location technology. It integrates data from both wireless network base stations and GPS satellites for a highly-accurate location description. It enables location-based services for wireless devices that work in all types of terrains and dense metropolitan areas. It is a component of the Launch pad Suite.
GroupwareIt is a category of enterprise software that allows employees to work more collaboratively. Groupware includes email and PIM (personal information management) functionality such as calendar, to-do lists and contact information; and allows employees to share data. Examples include Microsoft Exchange/Microsoft Outlook and Lotus Domino/Lotus Notes.
GSMIt is the Global System for Mobile Communications. It is a second-generation wireless telecommunications standard for digital cellular services first deployed in Europe. GSM is based on TDMA technology and provides circuit-switched data connections.
GUIIt is the Graphical User Interface. It is the interface that allows the user to interact with a particular device, such as a wireless phone or personal computer. Elements include pull-down menus, buttons, scroll bars, iconic images, windows and help wizards. It is sometimes pronounced "gooey".
H.263A video compression standard developed by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for transmitting video over limited bandwidth connections, such as mobile networks. Supports only the visual portion of the video stream; the audio portion is handled separately.
HandoffIt is the process, invisible to the user, of transferring a cellular phone conversation from one base station (cell tower) to another without interruption to the call. There are two types of handoffs: hard and soft.
HandsetIt is a wireless device that contains a transmitter and receiver. It is also known as a cell phone or mobile phone.
Hard HandoffA handoff is the process, invisible to the user, of transferring a cellular phone conversation from one base station (cell tower) to another without interruption to the call. Hard handoffs require that the connection of a cellular phone call be broken in the original base station before the connection can be made in the next base station. A hard handoff may result in a dropped call.
HertzIt is the international unit for measuring frequency, equivalent to cycles per second. One megahertz (MHz) is one million mertz. One gigahertz (GHz) is one billion hertz.
Hot SpotIt is a location, such as a coffee shop, airport or bookstore, where a consumer can establish a WLAN (wireless local area network) or Wi-Fi connection. Hot spots provide a wireless access point for the user and limited coverage (approximately 100 feet), depending on the location.
HSDPAIt is the High-Speed Downlink Packet Access. An enhancement to WCDMA networks that provides higher data speeds in the downlink to support applications such as VPN access, video downloads and large file transfers.
HSUPAIt is the High-Speed Uplink Packet Access. An enhancement to WCDMA networks that provides higher data speeds in the uplink to support applications such as VPN access and large file transfers.
iDENIntegrated Dispatch Enhance Network. A proprietary technology from Motorola based on the TDMA standard that allows users to access phone calls, two-way radio transmissions, paging and data from one wireless device. Nextel Communications uses iDEN technology as the basis for its networks.
IdentificationIs the process by which the biometric system identifies a person by performing a one-to-many (1: n) search against the entire enrolled population.
IdentificationIt is (1: N, one-to-many, recognition). It is the process of determining a personÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s identity by performing matches against multiple biometric templates. Identification systems are designed to determine identity based solely on biometric information. There are two types of identification systems: positive identification and negative identification. Positive identification systems are designed to find a match for a userÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s biometric information in a database of biometric information.
IdentificationThe "one-to-many" process of comparing a submitted biometric sample against all of the stored biometric reference templates to determine whether it matches any of the templates and, if so, the identity of the enrollor attached to the biometric evidence whose template was matched. The biometric system using the one-to-many approach is seeking to find an identity amongst a database rather than authenticate a claimed identity. Contrast with Authentication.
IEEEIt is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is a standards body responsible for developing computing and electronics standards. The IEEE developed 802.11 standards for WLANs (wireless local area networks) that are widely followed today.
IETFIt is the Internet Engineering Task Force. The body that defines standard Internet operating protocols such as TCP/IP.
IMIt is the Instant Messaging. It is the Instant, real-time, text-based communication between two or more people over a network such as the Internet.
IMODIt is the Interferometric Modulator. It is a low-power technology for flat panel displays for mobile devices. It combines ultra-thin film optics with a micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) device to create displays viewable in any lighting condition.
i-modeIt is the Internet Mode. It is a proprietary cell phone service based on cHTML technology developed by Japan's NTT DoCoMo. i-mode supports Web content and services, such as mobile banking, email and news reporting for cellular phones.
impostorA person, unknown in the collection of reference templates, who submits his/her own biometric sample in either an intentional or inadvertent attempt to pass him/herself as a legitimate enrolee. Contrast with Usurpator.
IMSIt is IP Multimedia Subsystem. It is an open industry standard for voice and multimedia communications over packet-based IP networks. It supports technologies such as IM (instant messaging), VoIP (voice over Internet protocol), push to talk (PTT) and video calling.
IMT-2000It is the International Mobile Telecommunications for the Year 2000. A set of ITU specifications for third-generation wireless networks comprised of five wireless standards including CDMA2000 and WCDMA.
Intellectual Property - a.k.a. IPIt is the Intellectual Property. It refers to property rights created through intellectual and/or discovery efforts of a creator that can generally be protected under patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret, trade dress or other law. Also commonly used as an abbreviation for Internet Protocol.
Internet Protocol - a.k.a. IPIt is the Internet Protocol. It is the method of sending data from one computer to another on the Internet. IP is part of the TCP/IP protocol and is an integral component of the Internet. Also commonly used as an abbreviation for Intellectual Property.
IP DatacastingIt is Simultaneous transmission of content from a single source to a large number of wireless subscribers. Usually refers to the delivery of a wide variety of TV-like programming to wireless devices, and can also include IP-based content such as games or video and audio files.
IPRIt is the Intellectual Property Rights.
IPsecIt is the Internet Protocol Security. It is a collection of protocols for secure exchange of packets at the internet protocol (IP) layer. IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport mode encrypts only the data portion of each packet; Tunnel mode encrypts the data portion and header of each packet.
IS-41 - a.k.a. ANSI 41The network standard used by AMPS, CDMA and TDMA networks. It is the basis of the core network for CDMA2000.
IS-95 A/B - a.k.a. ANSI 95 A/BIt is the Interim Standard 95. It is the interim standard for CDMA-based cellular networks.
IS-136 - a.k.a. ANSI 136It is the Interim Standard 136. It is the Interim Standard for TDMA in the U.S.
IS-2000It is the Interim Standard 2000. It is the interim standard for CDMA2000, the third-generation (3G) wireless mobile standard for CDMA2000-based cellular networks.
ISOIt is the International Organization for Standardization. Chartered by the United Nations, ISO was formed to define and promote the development of various international standards.
ITUIt is the International Telecommunications Union. It is an agency of the United Nations with the goal of establishing telecommunication standards.
JavaA programming language developed by Sun Microsystems for creating and running software programs on a single computer and in networked environments, such as the Internet. Java programs are portable and can be run anywhere in a network that has a Java virtual machine (JVM).
JPEGIt is a standard file format for image compression, typically for photographic images. Commonly used to store and transmit photographs over the Internet. The most common file extensions for this format are .jpg or .jpeg.
JVMIt is Java Virtual Machine. It interprets compiled Java code for a computerÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s processor so it can execute a Java programÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s instructions.
KBIt is Kilobyte. It is a measure of computer memory or storage. It measured as 1,024 bytes in decimal notation.
KbpsIt is Kilobits per second. Commonly used as a speed for data transmission. It measured as 1,000 bits per second.
KCCIt is Korea Communications Commission. It is Responsible for developing and enforcing policies which promote fair competition in the telecommunications marketplace.
Kilohertz (KHz)It is one thousand hertz. A measurement often used to reference radio frequencies.
L2TPLayer 2 Tunnelling Protocols. It is a tunnelling protocol that enables the operation of a virtual private network (VPN) over the Internet.
LANIt is Local Area Network. It is a small communication network covering a limited area, such as within a building or group of buildings.
Last MileIt is commonly used in telecommunications to refer to the final delivery of communications connectivity between the network and the end userÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s point of access (home or business).
Launchpad SuiteQualcomm's suite of integrated technologies that enable advanced multimedia, connectivity, position location, user interface, removable storage capabilities and many other capabilities. The Launchpad suite is integrated into Qualcomm's MSM chipset and software solutions.
LBSLocation Based Services. Enables operators to offer personalized services based on the userÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s location. Examples of LBS include regional map information for real estate agents and asset tracking solutions for service representatives at logistics and transportation companies.
LCDIt is Liquid crystal display. A thin, flat display screen consisting of numerous colour or monochrome pixels arranged in front of a light source. LCDs are used in many mobile and other battery-powered electronic devices because of relatively low energy requirements and easy readability.
Live frames (BioID)It is an audio or video single frame that may contain eye positions and a detection quality rating. (rate 0-100)
LTEIt is Long Term Evolution. A highly optimized mobile broadband OFDMA solution designed from the ground up to deliver high-speed broadband data, voice (VoIP), and Multimedia services. LTE complements existing 3G solutions by leveraging wider bandwidths (up to 20MHz), and advanced antenna techniques (MIMO, SDMA and Beam forming). LTE and UMB have similar features and are expected to have similar performance.
Match resultThe template and template identifier of an enroll as a result of the comparison performed by a biometric system of the submitted biometric data with the collection of stored reference templates. The match result is associated to a match score.
Match ScoreA numeric value associated to a candidate derived from the comparison by the biometric system of a biometric data with the template of the candidate. It is used for ordering the different results of the matches done by the biometric system for identification. It is the higher the score, the closer the candidate and the biometric data.
MatchingIt is the comparison of biometric templates to determine their degree of similarity or correlation. A match attempt results in a score that, in most systems, is compared against a threshold. If the score exceeds the threshold, the result is a match; if the score falls below the threshold, the result is a non-match.
MBIt is Megabyte. It is a measure of computer processor storage and real and virtual memory. It measured as 1,048,576 bytes in decimal notation.
MBMSIt is Multimedia Broadcasting Multicasting Service. It enables one source to simultaneously send data, such as video or audio programming, to multiple users who subscribe to the service.
MbpsIt is Megabits per second. It measured as one million bits per second. A measurement of the amount of data transferred in one second between two telecommunication points.
MediacastIt occasionally used to refer to the multicast delivery of a wide variety of TV-like programming to wireless devices.
MediaFLO MDSIt is MediaFLO Media Distribution System. It is a client-server solution that works in conjunction with FLO technology. Includes the tools to collect and manage content, bundle subscription packages, and merchandize and securely distribute content to wireless subscribers.
MediaFLO SystemIt is MediaFLO Media Distribution System. It is a client-server solution that works in conjunction with FLO technology. Includes the tools to collect and manage content, bundle subscription packages, and merchandize and securely distribute content to wireless subscribers.
MEMSIt is Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems. It is a technology that combines computers with tiny mechanical devices (such as sensors, valves or gears) for integration with integrated circuits. MEMS devices refer to mechanical components that are one micrometer (one millionth of a meter) in size.
MHzIt means Megahertz. It is one million hertz or cycles per second. A measurement often used to describe the speed of digital and analog signals.
MICHe is the Ministry of Information and Communication. The Korean government agency is responsible for promoting Korea's information technology.
Micro browserA Web browser specialized for a wireless phone, Smartphone or PDA optimized to run in the low-memory and small-screen environment of a handheld device.
MiddlewareIt is a type of software that connects or Ã¢â‚¬Å“glues togetherÃ¢â‚¬Â two or more otherwise separate types of software and translates information between them. For example, middleware is used to allow access between two different databases on a network.
MIIHe is the Ministry of Information Industry. The Chinese government agency is responsible for formulating China's information industry policies and strategic development.
MIMOMultiple Inputs, Multiple Outputs. It is in wireless communications, an antenna technology that uses multiple antennas at the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver). Antennas at each end are combined to reduce errors and improve data speed. It can be used in conjunction with OFDM.
Minutiae PointsIt is the Local ridge characteristics that occur at either a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending.
MMSIt is the Multimedia Messaging Service. Allows wireless device users to send multimedia, such as video or digital photos, from one device to another.
MPEG-3 - a.k.a. MP3It is Moving Picture Experts Group-3. It is a standard for compressing audio into a compact file without losing a significant amount of its quality. Used for the mobile transmission and storage of audio files.
MPEG-4 - a.k.a. MP4It is Moving Picture Experts Group-4. It is a standard for compressing video into a compact file without losing a significant amount of its quality. Used for the transmission and storage of images and video clips.
MSCIt is Mobile Switching Centre. A sophisticated telephone exchange that provides mobility management services, such as circuit-switched calling, and coordination between base stations (cell towers), networks and mobile users within a network.
MSMIt is Mobile Station Modem. It is wireless chipsets that enable mobile devices and handsets. MSMs ship with the Launchpad suite, an integrated set of advanced functions and capabilities such as multimedia, connectivity, position location, user interface and removable storage.
MulticastIt is simultaneous transmission of content from a single source to large numbers of wireless subscribers. Usually refers to the delivery of a wide variety of TV-like programming to wireless devices.
Multimedia PlatformIt is platform of Mobile Station Modem (MSM) chipsets that promotes mainstream adoption of third-generation (3G) wireless multimedia with system and software solutions which enable video, audio, gaming and location-based products and services.
MultipathThe multiple paths a radio wave may follow between transmitter and receiver. In cellular communications, refers to a radio signal reaching the receiving antenna by two or more paths.
Multipath FadingIt is interference during wireless signal reception caused by the deflection of a radio signal off obstacles such as buildings, mountains and other large obstructions.
NodeIt is a point of connection into a network. In packet-switched networks, a node is one of the many packet switches that form the networkÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s backbone.
Node BDenotes the base transceiver station (BTS) in WCDMA technology. The transmitter(s) and receiver(s) used to communicate directly with wireless devices.
OEL DisplayIt is Organic Electroluminescent Display. It is a type of display technology that enables very bright flat screens. OEL displays are often used in small portable devices because they do not require a backlight, resulting in a lower power draw.
OEMIt is Original Equipment Manufacturer. It is The manufacture of a device (often a consumer electronics product) that is sold to another company which in turn sells the device to the end consumer under its own name.
OFDMIt is the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. It is a wireless communications technology and modulation technique that divides available spectrum into multiple radio frequency (RF) channels. In OFDM, a single transmitter transmits on many different, independent frequencies, which typically results in a signal with high resistance to interference.
OFDMAIt is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access. Wireless technology based on OFDM that offers forward- and reverse-link communications and broadband data speeds to support applications such as VPN access, video downloads and large file transfers.
OMAOpen Mobile Alliance. A standards body that develops open standards for wireless information and telephony services on digital mobile phones and other wireless terminals.
One to many processIt is an alternative term for identification.
One to one processIt is an alternative term for verification.
Operating System - a.k.a. OS, O/SIt is Software that manages the basic operations of a computer system. Examples include UNIX, Windows, Palm OS and Mac OS X.
OperatorA wireless network operator, also often referred to as a carrier or service provider, that provides mobile telecommunication services.
OpExIt is Operational Expenditure. It is an expenditure connected to operating a business, including R&D, sales and marketing, and administrative costs.
OSIOpen Systems Interconnection. A reference model established by the ISO to provide a network design framework that allows equipment from different vendors to be able to communicate.
PacketIt is a digital "package" of data that enables efficient use of radio spectrum and routing over a network, such as the Internet or wireless networks. Each packet is numbered separately and includes the Internet address of the destination.
Packet-Switched NetworkIt is the Networks that transfer digital packets of data. Packet-switched networks are connectionless or Ã¢â‚¬Å“always on,Ã¢â‚¬Â eliminating the need to connect to a network to send or receive data. In contrast, circuit-switched networks require a dedicated circuit, or connection, for the duration of the data transmission.
Palm OSIt is Palm operating system for handheld devices, including PDAs and smart phones.
PC CardIt is a wireless modem that can be used in a laptop or other mobile computing device to connect to the Internet. It Synonymises with PCMCIA card, WWAN (wireless wide area network) card and Air card.
PCMCIAIt is Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. An international association that standardizes credit-card sized wireless modems which can be inserted into laptops or other mobile computing devices to connect to the Internet. A Type II PC card is the most common PCMCIA card.
PCSIt is Personal Communications Services. It refers to the 1900 MHz cellular frequency band. It is more commonly used as a marketing term to describe digital wireless services in the Americas, regardless of the particular frequency band being used.
PDAIt is Personal Digital Assistant. A portable personal computing device used for text messaging, email, calendar, contacts and a wide range of other applications.
PDCIt is Personal Digital Cellular. The second-generation TDMA-based wireless technology used in Japan. PDC is incompatible with other wireless networks.
PDSNIt is Packet Data Serving Node. Refers to the routers used in CDMA2000 wireless networks that comprise the backbone of the network.
PHYIt is Physical Layer. It transmits raw bits of data by establishing and terminating connections to a networked communications resource. It refers to network hardware, physical cabling or a wireless connection. Considered layer one of the seven-layer OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model of data communications.
Physical BiometricIt is a biometric, which is characterized by a physical characteristic rather than a behavioural trait.
PICIt is Pilot Interference Cancellation. It increases the reverse link capacity of CDMA-based technologies by removing interference from the pilot signal.
PIMIt is Personalized Information Manager. It is Software for keeping track of contact addresses and phone numbers, appointments, project schedules and task lists. It sometimes called a contact manager.
PixelIt is one of the many tiny dots that represent a picture in a computerÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s memory. Because pixels are so small and so numerous, they appear as a smooth, single image when displayed on paper or a computer monitor. Pixels vary in colour and intensity.
Platinum MulticastTechnology developed by Qualcomm that enables the delivery of video and audio programming to a large group of wireless subscribers, with more than three times the capacity of Gold Multicast. It is a software upgrade for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Rev. A networks.
PNGIt is Portable Network Graphics. It is a file format for image compression. It is a lossless format, which maintains all image information (such as number of pixels) when the image is viewed. In contrast, loss formats such as JPEG may lose image information when decompressed for viewing.
Pocket PCA handheld computer that runs the Microsoft Pocket PC operating system or Microsoft Windows Mobile 2003 for the Pocket PC. Typically includes features such as word processing and spreadsheet applications, handwriting recognition and wireless Internet access.
POPIt is Persons of Population. It refers to total population coverage according to a wireless service providerÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s license. In wire line communications, POP means Point of Presence, which is defined as the connectivity point between two networks.
POTSIt is Plain Old Telephone Service. It is the basic wired telephone line that supports standard single-line telephones, telephone lines and access to the PSTN (public switched telephone network).
powerOneit is a family of power management devices that provide battery management, voltage regulation, charging functions and other supporting features.
Pre-processingIt is a separation of biometric relevant information from unnecessary data of recording. It is a strongly related to Feature extraction.
Privacy-ProtectiveIt isa privacy-protective system is one used to protect or limit access to personal information, or which provide a means for an individual to establish a trusted identity.
Privacy-SympatheticIt is a privacy-sympathetic system is one that limits access to and usage of personal data and in which decisions regarding design issues such as storage and transmission of biometric data are informed, if not driven, by privacy concerns.
Privacy-NeutralIt is a privacy-neutral system is one in which privacy is not an issue, or in which the potential privacy impact is slight. Privacy-neutral systems are difficult to misuse from a privacy perspective, but do not have the capability to protect personal privacy.
Privacy-InvasiveIt is a privacy-invasive system facilitates or enables the usage of personal data in a fashion inconsistent with generally accepted privacy principles.
Prototype (BioID)It is generally the Biometric template of a trained user. In BioID, a prototype contains all necessary data to enable a classifier to classify a specific person. Result of a training process.
PPCIt means Pay per Call. It is in contrast to flat rates offered by operators for monthly service under a contract. It is also a commonly used abbreviation for the Pocket PC.
PPPIt is Point-to-Point Protocol. A protocol for communication that allows two devices to transport packets over a data connection, such as a personal computer connected by phone line to a server.
PPTPIt is Point-to-Point Tunnelling Protocol. It is a protocol for communication that facilitates virtual private networking to enable secure remote access to corporate networks via the Internet.
ProtocolWithin the context of data communications, a specific set of rules related to data transmission between two devices. Protocols set standard procedures that enable different types of data devices to recognize and communicate with each other.
PSTNIt is Public Switched Telephone Network. It refers to the local, long-distance and international phone system. In the United States, PSTN refers to the entire collection of interconnected phone companies.
PTTIt means Push-To-Talk. In two-way radio communications, PTT is an instant connection made between two cell phones. PTT works like a"walkie-talkie" and requires transmitters to use the same frequency. The best known example in the United States is Nextel's Direct Connect service.
QCELPIt is an audio file format supported by select PureVoice applications, which is a component of the Launchpad Suite. The file extension for this format is .qcp.
QoSIt is Quality of Service. It is a measure of networkÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s transmission reliability and efficiency. QoS is commonly used by network operators to indicate a higher level of service guarantee to customers.
R-UIM - a.k.a. CDMA SIM cardIt is Removable User Interface Module. It is a removable card that can be inserted into certain CDMA phones and other mobile devices that makes global roaming possible across CDMA and GSM wireless networks. The R-UIM card identifies the user's subscriber information, such as handset number and wireless features, and can also store data, including telephone numbers and addresses.
radioOneIt is a family of radio frequency (RF) devices with support for all major air interfaces.
Rake ReceiverA radio receiver designed to counter the effects of multipath fading; commonly used in devices such as mobile phones. Uses several sub-receivers, each slightly delayed, to tune into the individual paths a radio wave follows (multipath). Each component is later combined to effectively strengthen the signal.
Receive DiversityA method of using two separate handset-based antennas to improve signal reception, increase data rates and improve network capacity. It May also be used when a single device supports two different services, such as GPS for location-based services and CDMA for voice and data transmission.
RFIt means Radio Frequency. Measured in Hertz, MHz and GHz. Wireless and cordless telephones, radio and television broadcast stations, satellite communications systems and two-way radio services all operate using radio frequencies.
RF CMOSIt means Radio Frequency Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. It is a low-cost, high-volume digital process technology. CMOS-based devices use minimal power and donÃ¢â‚¬â„¢t produce as much heat as other processing technologies. It allows more functions, such as the radio frequency (RF) and baseband components, to be integrated into a single chip.
RNCIt is the Radio Network Controller. Equipment in third-generation (3G) wireless networks that interfaces with the core network, controls the radio transmitters and receivers in Node Bs, and performs mobility functions.
RoamingIt refers to a cellular subscriber using mobile phone service while outside of his/her service provider's coverage area.
ROC (Receiving Operating Curve)It is a curve allowing a direct interpretation of system performances where the FAR is plotted as a function of FRR.
ROIIt means Return on Investment. It is a financial performance measure to determine the relative attractiveness of a proposed investment. ROI is typically measured in dollars but can also be measured by less quantifiable benefits such as increased customer satisfaction.
S-GPSIt is Simultaneous-Global Positioning System. In telecommunications, the simultaneous operation of GPS location capabilities and CDMA2000 voice calls.
SCMSupply Chain Management. The communications link between a company and its suppliers, distributors and customers. Wireless SCM solutions are deployed to allow mobile access to the Internet and private corporate intranets to more efficiently manage inventory.
ScoreIt is a number indicating the degree of similarity or correlation of a biometric match. Traditional authentication methods, passwords, PINs, keys, and tokens - are binary, offering only a strict yes/no response. This is not the case with most biometric systems. Nearly all biometric systems are based on matching algorithms that generate a score subsequent to a match attempt. This score represents the degree of correlation between the verification template and the enrollment template. There is no standard scale used for biometric scoring: for some vendors a scale of 1-100 might be used, others might use a scale of 1 to 1; some vendors may use a logarithmic scale and others a linear scale. Regardless of the scale employed this verification score is compared to the system's threshold to determine how successful a verification attempt has been.
SDKIt is Software Development Kit. A set of software tools, usually designed for use with a particular operating system that enables software developers to write programs that will work on the target operating system.
Service ProviderIt is a "carrier" or "network operator" that provides mobile telecommunication services.
SFAIt means Sales Force Automation. A system that allows salespeople to record account and contact information, send form letters and schedule future activities. Wireless SFA solutions provide mobile employees with access to Web-based SFA databases via the Internet.
SIMIt means Subscriber Identity Module. A removable card built into all GSM phones and other mobile devices. The SIM identifies the user's subscriber information, such as handset number and wireless features, and can also store data, including telephone numbers and addresses.
Single Error RatesIt is the error rates state the likelihood of an error (false match, false non-match, or failure to enroll) for a single comparison of two biometric templates or for a single enrollment attempt. This can be thought of as a "single" error rate.
SIPIt is a Session Initiation Protocol. A standard protocol defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Used to initiate an interactive multimedia user session such as chat, video, voice or gaming.
SmartphoneIt is a category of mobile phones that supports both wireless data and voice capabilities. Smart phones include enhanced software and applications, including operating systems such as Palm OS and Windows Mobile. In addition to telephone functionality, features on a Smartphone might include email, Internet access and remote access to corporate databases.
SMILIt is Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. A programming language used to easily define and synchronize multimedia elements, such as video, sound and still images, for Internet usage. It is pronounced smile.
SMSIt means Short Messaging Service. It is a store-and-forward message service available on many second-generation and all third-generation wireless networks that allows users to send and receive short text messages over wireless devices.
Speaker IdentificationIt is the technology of comparing the vocal characteristics of an unknown speaker against a database of known speakers.
Speaker VerificationA Biometric Type that compares the vocal characteristics of the user. Text Dependent It is a speaker verification system that requires the user to speak only a preregistered word, number or phrase. Text Independent It is a speaker verification system that can cope with a full vocabulary.
Speech processingTerm used to refer to any mechanical or electronic system that processes speech. These include call processing and automatic fax sending.
Speech recognitionIt is the systems that can recognize either specific spoken words and phrases or a whole vocabulary and react to what is being said.
Spread SpectrumIt is a method of transmitting a radio frequency (RF) signal by Ã¢â‚¬Å“spreadingÃ¢â‚¬Â it over a broad range of frequencies. This facilitates reduced interference and increased capacity within a particular radio frequency band. CDMA technology is based on spread spectrum.
SS7It means Signalling System 7. The protocol used in public-switched telephone systems for establishing calls and providing services such as 800 numbers, call forwarding, caller ID and number portability.
SSLSecure Sockets Layer. It is a protocol for managing the security of message transmission on the Internet, for example, between a Web server and a Web browser.
STN-LCDIt means Super Twisted Nomadic Liquid Crystal Display. A low-power LCD flat-panel display technology that requires each pixel to be refreshed many times per second, resulting in low response times. Requires less power and is less expensive than TFT technology.
SubmissionIt is the process whereby a user provides behavioral or physiological data in the form of biometric samples to a biometric system. A submission may require looking in the direction of a camera or placing a finger on a platen. Depending on the biometric system, a user may have to remove eyeglasses, remain still for a number of seconds, or recite a pass phrase in order to provide a biometric sample.
SubscriberIt is in wireless, a user of a mobile telecommunication service.
Symbian OSIt is an operating system for smart phones licensed by Symbian to handset manufacturers.
Symmetric EncryptionIt is a secure method of converting data for transmission that uses the same cipher, or Ã¢â‚¬Å“key,Ã¢â‚¬Â to encrypt and decrypt the message.
SynchronousCommunication transmissions that are timed by a clocking signal and occur with equal time intervals between them. An example is the constant transmission of time-sensitive data, such as real-time voice.
Synchronous multimodalityIt isthe use of multiple biometric technologies in a single authentication process. For example, biometric systems find which use face and voice simultaneously, reducing the likelihood of fraud and reducing the time needed to verify.
TCOIt means Total Cost of Ownership. A financial measure commonly used by enterprises to calculate total relevant costs of a particular project. TCO includes the actual purchase price or cost of implementation plus relevant costs such as administration, maintenance, support, software and training.
TCP/IPIt refers to the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It is a communications protocol that has become the de facto standard protocol for the Internet. "TCP" provides transport functions, ensuring that the total amount of data sent is correctly received. "IP" provides the routing mechanism, ensuring the information reaches the correct destination.
TD-SCDMATime Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access. It is a third-generation, (3G) wireless standard that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous second generation wireless standards. It is one of the three international CDMA technology-based standards accepted by the ITU for third-generation wireless communications.
TDDIt refers to Time Division Duplexing. It is the application of time-division multiple access (TDMA) to separate inbound and outbound signals. Allows devices to transmit and receive on a single frequency at different time intervals.
TDMATime Division Multiple Access. It is a second-generation, digital wireless communication technology that increases the amount of data that can be delivered by dividing each cellular channel into time slots. Wireless standards that use TDMA technology include GSM, PDC and iDEN.
Template Dormant TimeIt is the elapsed time between the creation, or last update, of a template and its current use.
Template identifierThe item used to tie the enroll to their own template to make sure the correct template is called up when required; this can be a PIN, password or card number.
Template maturityIt is the number of biometric samples, including the original sample, contributing to the template currently on file.
Template or Biometric templateData structured set containing the biometric data of an enrolee used for data processing by a biometric system. The template is maintained on file or in a templates database.
TerminalA device, such as a laptop or cell phone, used to access a network.
TFT - a.k.a. Active Matrix Display TechnologyIt is Thin-Film Transistor. The technology used to make liquid crystal display (LCD) display screens. It is commonly used in notebook and laptop computers.
ThresholdIt is a predefined number, often controlled by a biometric system administrator, which establishes the degree of correlation necessary for a comparison to be deemed a match.
TIAIt refers to Telecommunications Industry Association. It is a U.S. trade association representing the communications and information technology industry. It is responsible for certain technical standards covering both wireless and wire line phone technology.
TokenIt is a possession that shows the identity of its owner such as a smart card, a 2D bar-code on a physical support or a contactless card.
Trait (BioID)One of the modalities BioID uses to identify persons. At the moment there exist three of them: face, mimic and voice.
Tri-Mode - a.k.a. Triple ModeIt refers Triple Mode. It is functionality that allows a mobile phone to transmit in three modes for wider coverage area. For example, a mobile phone may be equipped to use analog, 800 MHz cellular and 1900 MHz PCS frequencies to make and receive calls.
Trigger (BioID)It is the Time when a recording is started. It determined by analyzing audio and video channel (if both of them are present).
TV-OutStandard TV interface used to connect a mobile device to a compatible external device, such as a television or computer. Used to view images, watch video or play games.
Two-Way Paging - a.k.a. Interactive PagingIt is the ability to send and receive data via the Internet by way of a paging network.
uiOne Delivery SystemA solution developed by Qualcomm that delivers themed and personalized user experiences with dynamic content to uiOne-enabled devices. It can be integrated into an operatorÃ¢â‚¬â„¢s existing content service offering.
uiOne offeringIt is a Part of the suite of BREW products and services. It Enable the development and deployment of custom user interfaces for wireless phones. It includes the uiOne Toolkit, uiOne SDK (software development kit) and uiOne ART (applications, resources and templates).
UMTS - a.k.a. WCDMAIt is the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. A third-generation (3G), CDMA-based wireless communication standard that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous, second generation wireless technologies.
Unified Content Delivery SystemPart of the deliveryOne suite, a rich-media content delivery system that enables operators to consolidate content services for mobile devices under a single service delivery system. It is a component of deliveryOne.
UsurpatorA person who submits a replication of a biometric sample of a legitimate enroll in either an intentional or inadvertent attempt to pass him/herself as this legitimate enroll. Contrast with Impostor.
UTRANIt is UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network. The Node Bs and radio network controllers that make up a UMTS network. It enables connectivity between the user equipment and the core network.
UWBIt is Ultra Wideband. It is a wireless technology for transmitting large amounts of digital data over a wide spectrum of frequency bands across relatively short distances.
Value PlatformIt is a platform of Mobile Station Modem (MSM) chipsets which enables affordable wireless voice and data services, including basic colour screens, music, ringtones and voice-recognition features.
VerificationThe "one-to-one" process of comparing a submitted biometric sample against the biometric reference template of a single enroll whose identity is being claimed, to determine whether it matches the enroll's template. Contrast with Biometric identification.
Voice RecognitionThe technology found on some wireless phones, PCs and other communication devices that enables the device to respond to spoken commands.
VoIPIt is the Voice over Internet Protocol. The routing of voice conversations, sent as digital packets of data, over the Internet or other IP network.
VPNIt is Virtual Private Network. It is a network that is constructed using public wires to connect remote offices or individual users to their organizationsÃ¢â‚¬â„¢ network. VPNs use encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure network access to authorized users. VPNs are an essential component of secure wireless computing for the enterprise.
WANIt is the Wide Area Network. It is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. A WAN may be privately owned or rented, but the term usually refers to a public network.
WCDMA - a.k.a. UMTSWideband CDMA. A third-generation (3G), CDMA-based wireless communication technology that offers enhanced voice and data capacity and higher data rates than previous, second-generation wireless technologies.
WEPIt is Wired Equivalency Privacy. An optional feature for Wi-Fi and 802.11b that offers privacy by using an encryption algorithm that scrambles data before any data is transmitted.
Wi-FiShort for "Wireless Fidelity" and another name for WLAN (wireless local area network). It allows a mobile user to connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless connection. Wi-Fi has been deployed in airports, universities, bookstores, coffee shops, office campuses and private residences.
WiMAXIt is Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a group of proposed wireless standards for high-throughput broadband connections over long distances. Applications include "last mile" broadband connections and hot spots. It is a trade name for a new family of IEEE 802.16 wireless standards.
Windows MobileIt is Microsoft's global brand for its Pocket PC Operating System. Windows Mobile supports various Pocket PC devices including smart phones and includes features such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and email synchronization.
Wireless NodeA device equipped with wireless network interface capability.
Wireless SpectrumIt is a band of frequencies in which wireless signals travel carrying voice and data.
WirelessMANIt is Wireless Metropolitan Area Network. It enables broadband network access with exterior antennas that communicate with base stations that are connected to core network. It is an alternative to fixed-line networks. It developed by the IEEE 802.16 Working Group.
WLANIt is Wireless Local Area Network. It allows a mobile user to connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless connection. WLANs have been deployed in airports, universities, bookstores, coffee shops, office campuses and private residences.
WPANIt is Wireless Personal Area Network. It is a computer network that wirelessly connects devices in a short range (about 30 feet), such as a mobile phone to a wireless mouse or keyboard. Bluetooth is a WPAN technology.
WWANIt is Wireless Wide Area Network. Geographically separate computer networks joined through a wireless connection. A WWAN is similar to a WLAN (wireless local area network), but typically covers an entire metropolitan or nationwide area.
XMLIt means extensible Mark-up Language. A computer language developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) designed to improve the functionality of the Internet by providing a more flexible way to share basic data, such as phone numbers or addresses. For example, XML may be used to share data between desktop computers and wireless devices.
Zero-effort attemptsAn impostor attempt is classed as "zero-effort" if the individual submits their own biometric feature as if they were attempting successful verification against their own template.
ZIF - a.k.a. Direct ConversionIt is the Zero Intermediate Frequency. It is a radio frequency architecture that eliminates the entire intermediate frequency section of the cellular phone, resulting in smaller-sized wireless devices.